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Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by Fibroblasts and Collagen causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via Pulmonary alveoli. Patients show progressive Dyspnea finally resulting in death.

Breathing

JoVE 10882

The process of breathing, inhaling and exhaling, involves the coordinated movement of the chest wall, the lungs, and the muscles that move them. Two muscle groups with important roles in breathing are the diaphragm, located directly below the lungs, and the intercostal muscles, which lie between the ribs. When the diaphragm contracts, it moves downward, increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity and creating more room for the lungs to expand. When the intercostal muscles contract, the ribs move upward and the rib cage expands, similarly expanding the thoracic cavity. Each lung is surrounded by two membranes called plurae, which are separated by fluid. This fluid creates an adhesive force that causes the lungs to stretch as the thoracic cavity expands. The increased volume in the lungs reduces the pressure. When the pressure drops below atmospheric pressure, this produces a pressure gradient that moves air from the higher-pressure atmosphere into the lower-pressure lungs. When the diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax, the volume of the lungs decreases, increasing the pressure in the lungs. As pressure increases beyond atmospheric pressure, the resulting pressure gradient pushes air out of the body. In this way, the cycle of inhaling and exhaling is maintained. Boyle’s law states that, at a given temperature in a closed space, the press

 Core: Circulatory and Pulmonary Systems

Respiratory Exam I: Inspection and Palpation

JoVE 10028

Source: Suneel Dhand, MD, Attending Physician, Internal Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center


Disorders of the respiratory system with a chief complaint of shortness of breath are among the most common reasons for both outpatient and inpatient evaluation. The most obvious visible clue to a respiratory problem will be whether the…

 Physical Examinations I

Respiratory Exam II: Percussion and Auscultation

JoVE 10041

Source: Suneel Dhand, MD, Attending Physician, Internal Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center


Learning the proper technique for percussion and auscultation of the respiratory system is vital and comes with practice on real patients. Percussion is a useful skill that is often skipped during everyday clinical practice, but if…

 Physical Examinations I

Lung Capacity

JoVE 10883

The air in the lungs is measured in volumes and capacities. Lung volume measures reflect the amount of air taken in, released, or left over after a lung function, like a single inhalation. Lung capacity measures are sums of two or more lung volume measures.

There are four defined lung volume measures: tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume. Tidal volume is the amount of air inhaled and exhaled in a normal breath. Inspiratory (inhalation-related) reserve volume is the additional amount of air that can be inhaled after a regular inspiration. Expiratory (exhalation-related) reserve volume is the amount of air that can be exhaled after normal exhalation. Residual volume is the amount of air remaining in the lungs after forced exhalation (i.e., blowing). There are four defined lung capacity measures: inspiratory capacity, functional residual capacity, vital capacity, and total lung capacity. Inspiratory capacity is the volume of air that can be inhaled after normal exhalation. It is the sum of the two volume measures involving inhalation: tidal volume and inspiratory reserve volume. Functional residual capacity is the volume of air remaining in the lungs after normal exhalation and is equal to the sum of the expiratory reserve and residual volumes. Vital capacity is the maximum volume of air t

 Core: Circulatory and Pulmonary Systems

Induction of Mouse Lung Injury by Endotracheal Injection of Bleomycin

1Servizio di Allevamento e Sperimentazione Animale, Polo ScientificoTecnologico, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS)-Istituto Nazionale Ricovero e Cura Anziani (INRCA), 2Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Molecolari, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 3UOS Centro di Terapia Cellulare "G. Lanzani", Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale (ASST) Papa Giovanni XXIII

JoVE 58922

 Immunology and Infection

Generation of Human 3D Lung Tissue Cultures (3D-LTCs) for Disease Modeling

1Comprehensive Pneumology Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and Helmholtz Zentrum Munich, 2German Center of Lung Research (DZL), 3Translational Lung Research and CPC-M bioArchive, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Comprehensive Pneumology Center Munich DZL/CPC-M, 4Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lung Bioengineering and Regeneration, Lund University, 5Wallenberg Center for Molecular Medicine, Lund University, 6Stem Cell Centre, Lund University, 7Asklepios Fachkliniken Munich-Gauting, 8Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado

JoVE 58437

 Medicine

Molecular Analysis of Endothelial-mesenchymal Transition Induced by Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling

1David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 3Hastings Center for Pulmonary Research, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 4Department of Molecular Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo

JoVE 57577

 Biology

A Multimodal Imaging Approach Based on Micro-CT and Fluorescence Molecular Tomography for Longitudinal Assessment of Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis in Mice

1Corporate Preclinical R&D, Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A., 2Department of Veterinary Science, University of Parma, 3Department of Molecular Genetics, Erasmus MC, 4Department of Molecular Genetics, Vascular Surgery, Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC, 5Fluidda NV

JoVE 56443

 Immunology and Infection

Detection of microRNA Expression in Peritoneal Membrane of Rats Using Quantitative Real-time PCR

1Division of Nephrology, First Department of Integrated Medicine, Saitama Medical Center, Jichi Medical University, 2Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Jichi Medical University, 3Department of Medical Physiology, Meiji Pharmaceutical University

JoVE 55505

 Genetics

Absorption of Nasal and Bronchial Fluids: Precision Sampling of the Human Respiratory Mucosa and Laboratory Processing of Samples

1National Heart and Lung Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary's Hospital, 2St Mary's Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare Trust

JoVE 56413

 Medicine

Murine Dermal Fibroblast Isolation by FACS

1Hagey Laboratory for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, 2Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, 3Department of Surgery, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i

JoVE 53430

 Developmental Biology

Phenotyping Mouse Pulmonary Function In Vivo with the Lung Diffusing Capacity

1Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, 2Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, 3Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

JoVE 52216

 Biology

Non-surgical Intratracheal Instillation of Mice with Analysis of Lungs and Lung Draining Lymph Nodes by Flow Cytometry

1Department of Immunology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 2Division of Cell Biology, Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Health, 3Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, 4Department of Immunology, National Jewish Health

JoVE 2702

 Immunology and Infection

Bone Marrow Transplantation Platform to Investigate the Role of Dendritic Cells in Graft-versus-Host Disease

1Cancer Division, Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Florida, 2Department of Biochemistry, Hanoi University of Pharmacy, 3Center for Cardiovascular Regeneration, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Houston Methodist Research Institute, 4Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, 5Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Hillman Cancer Center

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JoVE 60083

 JoVE In-Press
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