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Pulmonary Valve: A valve situated at the entrance to the pulmonary trunk from the right ventricle.

Anatomy of the Heart

JoVE 10886

The human heart is made up of three layers of tissue that are surrounded by the pericardium, a membrane that protects and confines the heart. The outermost layer, closest to the pericardium, is the epicardium. The pericardial cavity separates the pericardium from the epicardium. Beneath the epicardium is the myocardium, the middle layer, and the endocardium, the innermost layer. There are four chambers of the heart: the right atrium, the right ventricle, the left atrium, and the left ventricle. These compartments have two types of valves—atrioventricular and semilunar—that prevent blood from flowing in the wrong direction. The right atrium receives blood from the coronary sinus and the superior and inferior vena cavae. This blood goes into the right ventricle via the right atrioventricular (or tricuspid) valve, a flap of connective tissue that prevents the backflow of blood into the atrium. Then, the blood leaves the heart, traveling through the pulmonary semilunar valve into the pulmonary artery. Blood is then carried back into the left atrium of the heart by the pulmonary veins. Between the left atrium and the left ventricle, the blood is again passed through an atrioventricular valve that prevents backflow into the atrium. This atrioventricular valve is called the bicuspid (or mitral) valve. The blood passes through the left ventricle into the aorta

 Core: Circulatory and Pulmonary Systems

Anatomy of the Circulatory System

JoVE 10885

The human circulatory system consists of blood, blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart, around the body, and back to the heart, and the heart itself, which acts as a central pump. The systemic circuit supplies blood to the whole body, the coronary circuit supplies blood to the heart, and the pulmonary circuit supplies blood flow between the heart and lungs.

Blood travels from the right atrium to the right ventricle of the heart through the tricuspid valve, then from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery through the pulmonary valve. Pulmonary veins then carry the blood to the left atrium of the heart, from which it is carried to the left ventricle through the mitral valve. Finally, the left ventricle pumps blood to the aorta (the largest artery in the body) through the aortic valve. Arteries, which carry blood away from the heart, split and get progressively smaller, becoming arterioles and eventually a series of capillaries, the sites of gas exchange. Capillaries converge to become larger venules, and eventually merge into veins, which bring blood back to the heart. Humans have a double circulatory system, in which blood travels through the heart twice via the pulmonary and systemic circuits. First, the heart receives deoxygenated blood in its right side and then pumps it to the nearby pulmonary circuit, the capillaries that ar

 Core: Circulatory and Pulmonary Systems

Shunt Surgery, Right Heart Catheterization, and Vascular Morphometry in a Rat Model for Flow-induced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

1Center for Congenital Heart Diseases, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Beatrix Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 2Research and Development Facility, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen

JoVE 55065

 Medicine

Cardiac Exam II: Auscultation

JoVE 10124

Source: Suneel Dhand, MD, Attending Physician, Internal Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center


Proficiency in the use of a stethoscope to listen to heart sounds and the ability to differentiate between normal and abnormal heart sounds are essential skills for any physician. Correct placement of the stethoscope on the chest…

 Physical Examinations I

High-frequency High-resolution Echocardiography: First Evidence on Non-invasive Repeated Measure of Myocardial Strain, Contractility, and Mitral Regurgitation in the Ischemia-reperfused Murine Heart

1Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University, 2Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University, 3Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Ohio State University

JoVE 1781

 Medicine

Invasive Hemodynamic Assessment for the Right Ventricular System and Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Mice

1Beijing Key Laboratory of Pre-clinical Research and Evaluation for Cardiovascular Implant Materials, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Centre for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 2Laboratory Animal Center, Peking University, 3Center of Cardiac Surgery for Adults, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Centre for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 60090

 JoVE In-Press

An In Vitro Model of a Parallel-Plate Perfusion System to Study Bacterial Adherence to Graft Tissues

1Cardiovascular Developmental Biology, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, KU Leuven, 2Centre for Molecular and Vascular Biology, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, KU Leuven, 3Department of Biohybrid & Medical Textiles, AME - Helmholtz Institute for Biomedical Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, 4European Homograft Bank, Saint Jean Clinique, 5Division of Clinical Cardiac Surgery, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, KU Leuven

JoVE 58476

 Developmental Biology

Optimized Protocol for the Extraction of Proteins from the Human Mitral Valve

1Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, 2Cardiovascular Tissue Bank of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, 3Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Cardiovascular Section, University of Milan, 4Department of Cardiovascular Disease, Development and Innovation Cardiac Surgery Unit, Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS

JoVE 55762

 Biochemistry

Use of Two Intracorporeal Ventricular Assist Devices As a Total Artificial Heart

1Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Duke University, 2Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, National Cheng Kung University Hospital and College of Medicine, 3Division of Surgical Sciences, Department of Surgery, Duke University

JoVE 55961

 Medicine
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