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Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

16S rRNA Sequencing: A PCR-based Technique to Identify Bacterial Species

JoVE 10510

Source: Ewa Bukowska-Faniband1, Tilde Andersson1, Rolf Lood1
1 Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Division of Infection Medicine, Biomedical Center, Lund University, 221 00 Lund, Sweden


Planet Earth is a habitat for millions of bacterial species, each of which has specific characteristics. Identification of bacterial species is…

 Microbiology

Testing For Genetically Modified Foods

JoVE 10044

Source: Laboratories of Margaret Workman and Kimberly Frye - Depaul University


Genetic modification of foods has been a controversial issue due to debated concerns over health and environmental safety. This experiment demonstrates technical understanding of how food DNA is genetically identified, allowing for educated decision making about …

 Environmental Science

Viscosity of Propylene Glycol Solutions

JoVE 10439

Source: Michael G. Benton and Kerry M. Dooley, Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA


Viscosity is a measure of a fluid's resistance to flow, and it is a useful parameter in the design of efficient product processing and quality control in a wide range of industries. A variety of viscometers are …

 Chemical Engineering

Porosimetry of a Silica Alumina Powder

JoVE 10383

Source: Kerry M. Dooley and Michael G. Benton, Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA


Surface area and pore size distribution are attributes used by adsorbent and catalyst manufacturers and users to ensure quality control and to determine when products are at the end of their useful lives. The…

 Chemical Engineering

Stress-Strain Characteristics of Aluminum

JoVE 10362

Source: Roberto Leon, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA


Aluminum is one of the most abundant materials in our lives, as it is omnipresent in everything from soda cans to airplane components. Its widespread use is relatively recent (1900AD), primarily because aluminum does not occur in its …

 Structural Engineering

Micro-CT Imaging of a Mouse Spinal Cord

JoVE 10475

Source: Peiman Shahbeigi-Roodposhti and Sina Shahbazmohamadi, Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut


It's a little-known fact that the discovery and (inadvertent) use of X-rays garnered the first ever Nobel Prize in Physics. The famous X-ray image of Dr.…

 Biomedical Engineering

Cell Division- Concept

JoVE 10571

Cell division is fundamental to all living organisms and required for growth and development. As an essential means of reproduction for all living things, cell division allows organisms to transfer their genetic material to their offspring. For a unicellular organism, cellular division generates a completely new organism. For multicellular organisms, cellular division produces new cells for…

 Lab Bio

ELISPOT Assay: Detection of IFN-γ Secreting Splenocytes

JoVE 10497

Source: Tonya J. Webb1
1 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine and the Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center, Baltimore, Maryland 21201


ELISPOT is a standardized, reproducible assay used to detect cellular immune responses. The assay utilizes an enzyme-linked…

 Immunology

Tension Test of Fiber-Reinforced Polymeric Materials

JoVE 10417

Source: Roberto Leon, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA


Fiber-reinforced polymeric materials (FRP) are composite materials that are formed by longitudinal fibers embedded in a polymeric resin, thereby creating a polymer matrix with aligned fibers along…

 Structural Engineering

Stress-Strain Characteristics of Steels

JoVE 10361

Source: Roberto Leon, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA


The importance of materials to human development is clearly captured by the early classifications of world history into periods such as the Stone Age, Iron Age, and the Bronze Age. The introduction of the Siemens and Bessemer…

 Structural Engineering

Tests on Fresh Concrete

JoVE 10420

Source: Roberto Leon, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA


Concrete is one of the most common construction materials and consists of two phases: the mortar phase, comprised of concrete, water and air, and the aggregate phase, comprised of coarse and fine aggregates. There are two key…

 Structural Engineering

RNA-Seq

JoVE 5548

Among different methods to evaluate gene expression, the high-throughput sequencing of RNA, or RNA-seq. is particularly attractive, as it can be performed and analyzed without relying on prior available genomic information. During RNA-seq, RNA isolated from samples of interest is used to generate a DNA library, which is then amplified and sequenced. Ultimately, RNA-seq can …

 Genetics

Imaging Biological Samples with Optical and Confocal Microscopy

JoVE 10476

Source: Peiman Shahbeigi-Roodposhti and Sina Shahbazmohamadi, Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut


Optical microscopes have been around for centuries, and while they reached their theoretical limitation of resolution decades ago, new equipment and techniques, such as confocal…

 Biomedical Engineering

SEM Imaging of Biological Samples

JoVE 10492

Source: Peiman Shahbeigi-Roodposhti and Sina Shahbazmohamadi, Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut


A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is an instrument that uses an electron beam to nondestructively image and characterize conductive materials in a vacuum. As an analogy, an…

 Biomedical Engineering

Material Constants

JoVE 10363

Source: Roberto Leon, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA


In contrast to the production of cars or toasters, where millions of identical copies are made and extensive prototype testing is possible, each civil engineering structure is unique and very expensive to reproduce (Fig.1).…

 Structural Engineering

Polarimeter

JoVE 10348

Source: Vy M. Dong and Diane Le, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA


This experiment will demonstrate the use of a polarimeter, which is an instrument used to determine the optical rotation of a sample. Optical rotation is the degree to which a sample will rotate polarized light. Optically active…

 Organic Chemistry II

Capillary Electrophoresis (CE)

JoVE 10226

Source: Laboratory of Dr. B. Jill Venton - University of Virginia


Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a separation technique that separates molecules in an electric field according to size and charge. CE is performed in a small glass tube called a capillary that is filled with an electrolyte solution. Analytes are separated due to…

 Analytical Chemistry

Endoplasmic Reticulum

JoVE 10969

The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) in eukaryotic cells is a substantial network of interconnected membranes with diverse functions, from calcium storage to biomolecule synthesis. A primary component of the endomembrane system, the ER manufactures phospholipids critical for membrane function throughout the cell. Additionally, the two distinct regions of the ER specialize in the manufacture of specific lipids and proteins. The rough ER is characterized by the presence of microscopically-visible ribosomes on its surface. As a ribosome begins translation of an mRNA in the cytosol, the presence of a signal sequence directs the ribosome to the surface of the rough ER. A receptor in the membrane of the ER recognizes this sequence and facilitates the entry of the growing polypeptide into the ER lumen through a transmembrane protein complex. With the assistance of chaperones, nascent proteins fold and undergo other functional modifications, including glycosylation, disulfide bond formation, and oligomerization. Properly folded and modified proteins are then packaged into vesicles to be shipped to the Golgi apparatus and other locations in the cell. Chaperones identify improperly folded proteins and facilitate degradation in the cytosol by proteasomes. Lacking ribosomes, the smooth ER is the cellular location of lipid and steroid synthesis, cellular detoxification, ca

 Core: Cell Structure and Function

Photosystem II

JoVE 10751

Photosystem II is a multi-protein complex embedded within the thylakoid membrane where it harvests light energy. Chlorophyll molecules transfer energy to a specific pair of chlorophyll a molecules in the reaction center of Photosystem II. Here, the chlorophyll a molecules lose an electron (oxidation), transferring it to a primary electron acceptor. The donated electrons pass through the electron transport chain into Photosystem I. Splitting a water molecule releases one oxygen atom, two protons (H+) and two electrons. The electrons replace the donated electrons of the two chlorophyll a molecules in the reaction center. The oxygen atom immediately reacts with another oxygen atom, producing O2 that is released into the atmosphere. The protons accumulate and create a concentration gradient across the thylakoid membrane that drives ATP synthesis in a process called chemiosmosis. The multi-protein complex Photosystem II harvests photons and transfers energy through its bound pigments chlorophyll a and b, and carotenoids. Carotenoids have a protective function as they help dissipate the vast amount of energy taken in that could otherwise damage the plant tissue. Energy travels from chlorophyll molecule to chlorophyll molecule until it reaches a pair of specialized chlorophyll a molecules in a region called the re

 Core: Photosynthesis

Protein Associations

JoVE 10704

The cell membrane—or plasma membrane—is an ever-changing landscape. It is described as a fluid mosaic as various macromolecules are embedded in the phospholipid bilayer. Among the macromolecules are proteins. The protein content varies across cell types. For example, mitochondrial inner membranes contain ~76%, while myelin contains ~18% protein content. Individual cells contain many types ofbrane proteins—red blood cells contain over 50—and different cell types harbor distinct membrane protein sets. Membrane proteins have wide-ranging functions. For example, they can be channels or carriers that transport substances, enzymes with metabolic roles, or receptors that bind to chemical messengers. Like membrane lipids, most membrane proteins contain hydrophilic (water-loving) and hydrophobic (water-fearing) regions. The hydrophilic areas are exposed to water-containing solution inside the cell, outside the cell, or both. The hydrophobic regions face the hydrophobic tails of phospholipids within the membrane bilayer. Membrane proteins can be classified by whether they are embedded (integral) or associated with the cell membrane (peripheral). Most integral proteins are transmembrane proteins, which traverse both phospholipid layers, spanning the entire membrane. Their hydrophilic regions extend from both sides of the membrane, facing cytosol on

 Core: Membranes and Cellular Transport

A Stainless Protocol for High Quality RNA Isolation from Laser Capture Microdissected Purkinje Cells in the Human Post-Mortem Cerebellum

1Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University, 2Division of Movement Disorders, Department of Neurology, Yale University, 3Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, Yale University, 4Center for Neuroepidemiology and Clinical Neurological Research, Yale School of Medicine, Yale University

JoVE 58953

 Neuroscience

Automated Multiplex Immunofluorescence Panel for Immuno-oncology Studies on Formalin-fixed Carcinoma Tissue Specimens

1Laboratory of Pathology, MedImmune, 2Laboratory of Pathology, MedImmune, 3Akoya Biosciences Inc., 4Department of Translational Molecular Pathology, University of Texas - MD Anderson Cancer Center

JoVE 58390

 Cancer Research

Construction and Setup of a Bench-scale Algal Photosynthetic Bioreactor with Temperature, Light, and pH Monitoring for Kinetic Growth Tests

1Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, 2Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, North Carolina State University

JoVE 55545

 Bioengineering

Technical Aspect of the Automated Synthesis and Real-Time Kinetic Evaluation of [11C]SNAP-7941

1Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, 2Department for Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, 3Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Applied Diagnostics, 4CBmed GmbH - Center for Biomarker Research in Medicine

JoVE 59557

 Chemistry

Droplet Barcoding-Based Single Cell Transcriptomics of Adult Mammalian Tissues

1Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, 2Department of Comparative Biology and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, 3Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, 4Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary

JoVE 58709

 Biology

Generation of Alpha-Synuclein Preformed Fibrils from Monomers and Use In Vivo

1Department of Translational Science and Molecular Medicine, Michigan State University, 2The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research, 3Neuroscience Program, Michigan State University, 4Center for Neurodegenerative Disease Research, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, 5Center for Neurodegeneration and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 6Mercy Health Hauenstein Neuroscience Medical Center

JoVE 59758

 Neuroscience

Real-time Analysis of Transcription Factor Binding, Transcription, Translation, and Turnover to Display Global Events During Cellular Activation

1Institute for Diabetes and Obesity (IDO), German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Helmholtz Zentrum München, 2Institute for Informatics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 3Roche Pharma Research and Early Development, Large Molecule Research, Roche Innovation Center Penzberg

JoVE 56752

 Genetics

Replication of the Ordered, Nonredundant Library of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 Transposon Insertion Mutants

1Department of Pediatrics, Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 3Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 4Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School

JoVE 57298

 Immunology and Infection

Enhanced Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing for Assessment of DNA Methylation at Base Pair Resolution

1Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 2Institute for Computational Biomedicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 3Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Cornell Medical College, 4Department of Pathology, University of Michigan

JoVE 52246

 Biology

Targeted Next-generation Sequencing and Bioinformatics Pipeline to Evaluate Genetic Determinants of Constitutional Disease

1Robarts Research Institute, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, 2Department of Biochemistry, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, 3Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Center for Genomic Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Stanley Centre for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 4Tanz Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Toronto, 5School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Queen's University, 6Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, 7CHEO Research Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, 8Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, Western University, 9Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, 10Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, 11Morton and Gloria Shulman Movement Disorders Centre, Toronto Western Hospital, 12Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, 13Parkwood Institute, St. Joseph's Health Care, 14Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology, McMaster University, 15Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Baycrest Health Sciences, 16Canadian Partnership for Stroke Recovery Sunnybrook Site, Sunnybrook Health Science Centre, University of Toronto

JoVE 57266

 Genetics

Next Generation Sequencing for the Detection of Actionable Mutations in Solid and Liquid Tumors

1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 2Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3Abramson Cancer Center

JoVE 52758

 Cancer Research

Promoter Capture Hi-C: High-resolution, Genome-wide Profiling of Promoter Interactions

1Nuclear Dynamics Programme, The Babraham Institute, Babraham Research Campus, 2IJC Building, Campus ICO-Germans Trias i Pujol, Josep Carreras Leukemia Research Institute, 3Departamento de Genética Molecular, Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 4Bioinformatics Group, The Babraham Institute, Babraham Research Campus, 5Department of Biological Science, Florida State University

JoVE 57320

 Genetics
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