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Reducing Agents: Materials that add an electron to an element or compound, that is, decrease the positiveness of its valence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)

Reducing Agents

JoVE 10354

Source: Vy M. Dong and Daniel Kim, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA


Controlling the reactivity and selectivity during the synthesis of a molecule is very important criteria for chemists. This has led to the development of many reagents that allow chemists to pick and choose reagents suitable for a given task.…

 Organic Chemistry II

Redox Reactions

JoVE 10671

Oxidation-reduction, or redox, reactions change the oxidation states of atoms via the transfer of electrons from one atom, the reducing agent, to another atom that receives the electron, the oxidizing agent. Here, the atom that donates electrons is oxidized—it loses electrons—and the atom that accepts electrons is reduced—it has a less positive charge because it gains electrons. The movement of energy in redox reactions is dependent on the potential of the atoms to attract bonding electrons—their electronegativity. If the oxidizing agent is more electronegative than the reducing agent, then energy is released. However, if the oxidizing agent is less electronegative than the reducing agent, the input of energy is required. Is oxidation a loss or gain of electrons? The terminology can be confusing. The acronym OIL RIG is commonly used to remember. It stands for oxidation is loss; reduction is gain. So, if an atom is oxidized, then it loses electrons. As a reducing agent, the oxidized atom transfers electrons to another atom, causing it to be reduced. With OIL RIG in mind, most questions about the members of a redox reaction can be answered. Redox reactions either produce or require energy. If an atom loses an electron to a more electronegative atom, then it is an energetically favorable reaction, and energy is released. This

 Core: Chemistry of Life

Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis

JoVE 5686

Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) is a technique that can resolve thousands of biomolecules from a mixture. This technique involves two distinct separation methods that have been coupled together: isoelectric focusing (IEF) and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). This physically separates compounds across two axes of a gel by their isoelectric points…

 Biochemistry

Cell-surface Biotinylation Assay

JoVE 5647

A cell can regulate the amount of particular proteins on its cell membrane through endocytosis, following which cell surface proteins are effectively sequestered in the cytoplasm. Once within a cell, these surface proteins can be either destroyed or “recycled” back to the membrane. The cell surface biotinylation assay provides researchers with a way to study…

 Cell Biology

Chemical Storage: Categories, Hazards And Compatibilities

JoVE 10380

Source: Robert M. Rioux & Taslima A. Zaman, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA


While the use of various chemicals in experimental research is essential, it is also important to safely store and maintain them as a part of the Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) program. The properties of chemicals and …

 Lab Safety

Separating Protein with SDS-PAGE

JoVE 5058

Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Poly-Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, or SDS-PAGE, is a widely-used technique for separating mixtures of proteins based on their size and nothing else. SDS, an anionic detergent, is used to produce an even charge across the length of proteins that have been linearized. By first loading them into a gel made of polyacrylamide and then applying an electric field to the gel,…

 Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

Screening for Functional Non-coding Genetic Variants Using Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) and DNA-affinity Precipitation Assay (DAPA)

1Center for Autoimmune Genomics and Etiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, 2Medical Scientist Training Program, University of Cincinnati, 3Immunology Graduate Program, University of Cincinnati, 4Divisions of Biomedical Informatics and Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital

JoVE 54093

 Biology

Stomata Tape-Peel: An Improved Method for Guard Cell Sample Preparation

1Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Florida, 2Department of Biology, University of Florida, 3Genetics Institute (UFGI), University of Florida, 4Alkali Soil Natural Environmental Science Center, Northeast Forestry University, 5Interdisciplinary Center for Biotechnology Research (ICBR), University of Florida

JoVE 57422

 Biology

Application of Elemental Lanthanides in the Selective C-F Activation of Trifluoromethylated Benzofulvenes Providing Access to Various Difluoroalkenes

1Institut de Chimie Moléculaire de Reims UMR 7312, Université de Reims Champagne Ardenne, 2Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier UMR 5253, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Montpellier

JoVE 57948

 Chemistry

Synthesis of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes Modified with Silver Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Their Antibacterial Activities and Cytotoxic Properties

1Center for Biomaterials, Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 2School of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, 3Division of Synthetic Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Institute for Quantitative Health Science and Engineering, Michigan State University

JoVE 57384

 Bioengineering
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