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Reducing Agents: Materials that add an electron to an element or compound, that is, decrease the positiveness of its valence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)

Reducing Agents

JoVE 10354

Source: Vy M. Dong and Daniel Kim, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA

Controlling the reactivity and selectivity during the synthesis of a molecule is very important criteria for chemists. This has led to the development of many reagents that allow chemists to pick and choose reagents suitable for a given task. Quite often, a balance between reactivity and selectivity needs to be achieved. This experiment will use IR spectroscopy to monitor the reaction and to understand the reactivity of carbonyl compounds as well as the reactivity of hydride-reducing reagents.


 Organic Chemistry II

Screening for Functional Non-coding Genetic Variants Using Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) and DNA-affinity Precipitation Assay (DAPA)

1Center for Autoimmune Genomics and Etiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, 2Medical Scientist Training Program, University of Cincinnati, 3Immunology Graduate Program, University of Cincinnati, 4Divisions of Biomedical Informatics and Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital

JoVE 54093


 Biology

Chemical Storage: Categories, Hazards And Compatibilities

JoVE 10380

Source: Robert M. Rioux & Taslima A. Zaman, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

While the use of various chemicals in experimental research is essential, it is also important to safely store and maintain them as a part of the Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) program. The properties of chemicals and their reactivity vary broadly and if chemicals are not managed, stored, and labeled properly, they can have harmful or even destructive consequences such as toxic fume production, fire or explosion, which may result in human fatality, property damage or environmental hazards. Therefore, an appropriate chemical label should identify the material and list the associated hazards, and users should have knowledge of how to read chemical labels and safety data sheets (SDS). Proper chemical storage must meet OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Association) standards and this can prevent most chemical reactivity hazards.


 Lab Safety

Total Internal Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (TIRAS) for the Detection of Solvated Electrons at a Plasma-liquid Interface

1Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Notre Dame, 2Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, 3Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Notre Dame Radiation Laboratory, University of Notre Dame

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56833


 JoVE In-Press

Separating Protein with SDS-PAGE

JoVE 5058

Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Poly-Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, or SDS-PAGE, is a widely-used technique for separating mixtures of proteins based on their size and nothing else. SDS, an anionic detergent, is used to produce an even charge across the length of proteins that have been linearized. By first loading them into a gel made of polyacrylamide and then applying an electric field to the gel, SDS-coated proteins are then separated. The electric field acts as the driving force, drawing the SDS coated proteins towards the anode with larger proteins moving more slowly than small proteins. In order to identify proteins by size, protein standards of a known size are loaded along with samples and run under the same conditions. This video presents an introduction to SDS-PAGE by first explaining the theory behind it and later demonstrating its step-by-step procedure. Various experimental parameters, such as the polyacrylamide concentration and voltage applied to the gel are discussed. Downstream staining methods like Coomassie and silver stains are introduced, and variations of the method, like 2D gel electrophoresis are presented.


 Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis

JoVE 5686

Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) is a technique that can resolve thousands of biomolecules from a mixture. This technique involves two distinct separation methods that have been coupled together: isoelectric focusing (IEF) and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). This physically separates compounds across two axes of a gel by their isoelectric points (an electrochemical property) and their molecular weights. The procedure in this video covers the main concepts of 2DGE and a general procedure for characterizing the composition of a complex protein solution. Three examples of this technique are shown in the applications section, including biomarker detection for disease initiation and progress, monitoring treatment in patients, and the study of proteins following posttranslational modification (PTM). Two-dimensional, or 2D, gel electrophoresis is a technique utilizing two distinct separation methods which can separate thousands of proteins from a single mixture. One of the techniques, SDS-PAGE or sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, cannot fully separate complex mixtures alone. 2D gel electrophoresis couples the SDS-PAGE to a second method, isoelectric focusing or IEF, which separates based on isoelectric points, allowing for the resolution of potentially a


 Biochemistry

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