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Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)

Ex Vivo Infection of Human Lymphoid Tissue and Female Genital Mucosa with Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 and Histoculture

1Department of Medicine Solna, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, 2Section of Intercellular Interactions, Eunice Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health

JoVE 57013


 Immunology and Infection

Comprehensive Protocol to Sample and Process Bone Marrow for Measuring Measurable Residual Disease and Leukemic Stem Cells in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

1Department of Hematology, VU University Medical Center, 2Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, VU University Medical Center, 3Janssen Research & Development, LLC, 4Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology

JoVE 56386


 Cancer Research

Morphology-Based Distinction Between Healthy and Pathological Cells Utilizing Fourier Transforms and Self-Organizing Maps

1Department of Chemical and Product Safety, German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), 2Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum (DRFZ) Berlin, a Leibniz Institute, 3Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 4Applied Systems Biology, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology Hans Knöll Institute

JoVE 58543


 Cancer Research

Generation of Electronic Cigarette Aerosol by a Third-Generation Machine-Vaping Device: Application to Toxicological Studies

1Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, 2Department of Environmental Sciences, College of the Coast & Environment, Louisiana State University, 3SCIREQ Scientific Respiratory Equipment Inc.

JoVE 58095


 Chemistry

Method and Instrumented Fixture for Femoral Fracture Testing in a Sideways Fall-on-the-Hip Position

1Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, 2Division of Engineering, Mayo Clinic, 3Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 4Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

JoVE 54928


 Bioengineering

In vivo Near Infrared Fluorescence (NIRF) Intravascular Molecular Imaging of Inflammatory Plaque, a Multimodal Approach to Imaging of Atherosclerosis

1Cardiovascular Research Center and Cardiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging, Helmholtz Zentrum München und Technische Universität München, 3Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University

JoVE 2257


 Medicine

Fundus Photography as a Convenient Tool to Study Microvascular Responses to Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Epidemiological Studies

1Environmental Risk and Health, Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), 2Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, 3Transportation Research Institute, Hasselt University, 4Department of Public Health, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Leuven University

JoVE 51904


 Medicine

Safety Precautions and Operating Procedures in an (A)BSL-4 Laboratory: 1. Biosafety Level 4 Suit Laboratory Suite Entry and Exit Procedures

1Integrated Research Facility at Frederick, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), 2Environmental Health and Safety, Biological and Chemical Safety Program, University of Texas Medical Branch

JoVE 52317


 Immunology and Infection

RNA Analysis of Environmental Samples Using RT-PCR

JoVE 10104

Source: Laboratories of Dr. Ian Pepper and Dr. Charles Gerba - Arizona University
Demonstrating Author: Bradley Schmitz

Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) involves the same process as conventional PCR — cycling temperature to amplify nucleic acids. However, while conventional PCR only amplifies deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA), RT-PCR enables the amplification of ribonucleic acids (RNA) through the formation of complementary DNA (cDNA). This enables RNA-based organisms found within the environment to be analyzed utilizing methods and technologies that are designed for DNA. Many viruses found in the environment use RNA as their genetic material. Several RNA-based viral pathogens, such as Norovirus, and indicator organisms, such as pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), do not have culture-based detection methods for quantification. In order to detect for the presence of these RNA viruses in environmental samples from soil, water, agriculture, etc., molecular assays rely on RT-PCR to convert RNA into DNA. Without RT-PCR, microbiologists would not be able to assay and research numerous RNA-based viruses that pose risks to human and environmental health. RT-PCR can also be employed as a tool to measure microbial activity in the env


 Environmental Microbiology

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