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RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
 JoVE Immunology and Infection

High-throughput Screening for Broad-spectrum Chemical Inhibitors of RNA Viruses

1Unité de Génomique Virale et Vaccination, Virology Department, Institut Pasteur, CNRS UMR3569, 2Unité de Chimie et Biocatalyse, Biochemistry and Structural Biology Department, Institut Pasteur, CNRS UMR3523, 3Unité des Interactions Moléculaires Flavivirus-Hôtes, Virology Department, Institut Pasteur


JoVE 51222

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Pairwise Growth Competition Assay for Determining the Replication Fitness of Human Immunodeficiency Viruses

1Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, 2Departments of Medicine and Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, 3U.S Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 4Henry M. Jackson Foundation


JoVE 52610

 JoVE Neuroscience

Detection of the Genome and Transcripts of a Persistent DNA Virus in Neuronal Tissues by Fluorescent In situ Hybridization Combined with Immunostaining

1Virus and Centromere Team, Centre de Génétique et Physiologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS UMR 5534, 2Université de Lyon 1, 3Laboratoire d'excellence, LabEX DEVweCAN, 4Institut de Virologie Moléculaire et Structurale, CNRS UPR 3296, 5Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Lyon, INSERM U1052, CNRS UMR 5286


JoVE 51091

 JoVE In-Press

Generation of Escape Variants of Neutralizing Influenza Virus Monoclonal Antibodies

1Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 2Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 3The Department of Medicine, Section of Rheumatology, The Knapp Center for Lupus and Immunology Research, The University of Chicago

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JoVE 56067

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Modeling The Lifecycle Of Ebola Virus Under Biosafety Level 2 Conditions With Virus-like Particles Containing Tetracistronic Minigenomes

1Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 2Research Technology Branch, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health


JoVE 52381

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Protocols for Investigating the Host-tissue Distribution, Transmission-mode, and Effect on the Host Fitness of a Densovirus in the Cotton Bollworm

1State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 2Tobacco Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 3Crop and Environment Sciences, Harper Adams University


JoVE 55534

 Science Education: Essentials of Environmental Microbiology

RNA Analysis of Environmental Samples Using RT-PCR

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Dr. Ian Pepper and Dr. Charles Gerba - Arizona University
Demonstrating Author: Bradley Schmitz

Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) involves the same process as conventional PCR — cycling temperature to amplify nucleic acids. However, while conventional PCR only amplifies deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA), RT-PCR enables the amplification of ribonucleic acids (RNA) through the formation of complementary DNA (cDNA). This enables RNA-based organisms found within the environment to be analyzed utilizing methods and technologies that are designed for DNA. Many viruses found in the environment use RNA as their genetic material. Several RNA-based viral pathogens, such as Norovirus, and indicator organisms, such as pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), do not have culture-based detection methods for quantification. In order to detect for the presence of these RNA viruses in environmental samples from soil, water, agriculture, etc., molecular assays rely on RT-PCR to convert RNA into DNA. Without RT-PCR, microbiologists would not be able to assay and research numerous RNA-based viruses that pose risks to human and environmental health. RT-PCR can also be employed as a tool to measure microbial activity in the env

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Fluorescence in situ Hybridizations (FISH) for the Localization of Viruses and Endosymbiotic Bacteria in Plant and Insect Tissues

1Department of Entomology, Volcani Center, 2Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 3Department of Applied Sciences, Institute for Adriatic Crops and Karst Reclamation, 4The Institute of Plant Sciences, Volcani Center


JoVE 51030

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

A Simple and Efficient Approach to Construct Mutant Vaccinia Virus Vectors

1Center for Molecular Oncology, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, 2Sino-British Research Centre for Molecular Oncology, National Center for International Research in Cell and Gene Therapy, Zhengzhou University, 3School of Basic Medical Sciences, Academy of Medical Sciences, Zhengzhou University


JoVE 54171

 JoVE Biology

Adenofection: A Method for Studying the Role of Molecular Chaperones in Cellular Morphodynamics by Depletion-Rescue Experiments

1Département de biologie moléculaire, biochimie médicale et pathologie, Faculté de médecine, Centre de recherche sur le cancer de l'Université Laval, 2Oncology, Centre de recherche du CHU de Québec, Université Laval, 3Laboratoire d'études moléculaires des valvulopathies (LEMV), Groupe de recherche en valvulopathies (GRV), Quebec Heart and Lung Institute/Research Center, 4Department of Surgery, Université Laval


JoVE 54557

 JoVE Medicine

An Affordable HIV-1 Drug Resistance Monitoring Method for Resource Limited Settings

1Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, 2Unit D11, Jembi Health Systems, 3Academic Medical Center, Department of Global Health, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD), University of Amsterdam, 4Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Centre for AIDS Research, Stanford Medical School


JoVE 51242

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

A Rapid Strategy for the Isolation of New Faustoviruses from Environmental Samples Using Vermamoeba vermiformis

1Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Research Unit for Infectious and Tropical Emerging Diseases, Aix Marseille University, 2Pole of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Clinical and Biological Sector, Federation of Bacteriology-Hygiene Virology, University Hospital Institute Mediterranean Infection


JoVE 54104

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

High-throughput Quantitative Real-time RT-PCR Assay for Determining Expression Profiles of Types I and III Interferon Subtypes

1Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, US Food and Drug Administration, 2Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, US Food and Drug Administration


JoVE 52650

 JoVE Cancer Research

A Unified Methodological Framework for Vestibular Schwannoma Research

1Eaton Peabody Laboratories, Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, 2Department of Otolaryngology, Harvard Medical School, 3Department of Otolaryngology, Vienna General Hospital, Medical University of Vienna, 4Program in Speech and Hearing Bioscience and Technology, Harvard Medical School


JoVE 55827

 JoVE Medicine

Detection and Genogrouping of Noroviruses from Children's Stools By Taqman One-step RT-PCR

1Laboratorio de Investigación y Desarrollo (LID), Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, 2Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 3Laboratorio de Diagnostico Molecular, Facultad de Medicina, University of Concepcion,Chile, 4University of California San Diego School of Medicine


JoVE 3232

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Flow Virometry to Analyze Antigenic Spectra of Virions and Extracellular Vesicles

1Section on Intercellular Interactions, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, 2Laboratory of Atherothrombosis, Cardiology Department, Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry, 3Sidra Medical and Research Center


JoVE 55020

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