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Sample Size: The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)

Histological Sample Preparation for Light Microscopy

JoVE 5039

Histology is the study of cells and tissues, which is typically aided by the use of a light microscope. The preparation of histological samples can vary greatly based on the inherent properties of the samples such as size and hardness as well as expected post-processing which includes planned staining techniques or other down-stream applications. As described in this video, specimen…

 General Laboratory Techniques

The Neuromuscular Junction: Measuring Synapse Size, Fragmentation and Changes in Synaptic Protein Density Using Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy

1Physiology and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney, 2Motor Neuron Disease Research Group, Australian School of Advanced Medicine, Macquarie University, 3Advanced Microscopy Facility, Bosch Institute, University of Sydney

JoVE 52220

 Neuroscience

Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry to Measure Changes in Enthalpy

JoVE 5559

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Terry Tritt — Clemson University


Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is a method of thermodynamic analysis based on heat-flux method, wherein a sample material (enclosed in a pan) and an empty reference pan are subjected to identical temperature conditions. The energy difference that is required to…

 General Chemistry

Electroplating of Thin Films

JoVE 10489

Source: Logan G. Kiefer, Andrew R. Falkowski, and Taylor D. Sparks, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT


Electroplating is a process that uses electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a thin coating on an electrode. Other thin film deposition techniques…

 Materials Engineering

Carbon and Nitrogen Analysis of Environmental Samples

JoVE 10012

Source: Laboratories of Margaret Workman and Kimberly Frye - Depaul University


Elemental Analysis is a method used to determine elemental composition of a material. In environmental samples such as soils, scientists are particularly interested in the amounts of two ecologically important elements, nitrogen and carbon. Elemental analysis by …

 Environmental Science

Performing 1D Thin Layer Chromatography

JoVE 5499

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Yuri Bolshan — University of Ontario Institute of Technology


Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is a chromatographic method used to separate mixtures of non-volatile compounds. A TLC plate consists of a thin layer of adsorbent material (the stationary phase) fixed to an appropriate solid support such as…

 Organic Chemistry

Blood Withdrawal I

JoVE 10246

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


Blood collection is a common requirement for research studies that involve mice and rats. The method of blood withdrawal in mice and rats is dependent upon the volume of blood needed, the frequency of the sampling, the health status of the …

 Lab Animal Research

Blood Withdrawal II

JoVE 10247

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


The collection of blood from mice and rats for analysis can be done through a variety of methods. Each method of collection has variations in the type of restraint required, the invasiveness of the procedure, and the necessity of a general …

 Lab Animal Research

Memory Development: Demonstrating How Repeated Questioning Leads to False Memories

JoVE 10129

Source: Laboratories of Judith Danovitch and Nicholaus Noles—University of Louisville


A person is defined as a unique individual based on the people and events they encounter in their lives. Thus, creating, storing, and recalling memories are essential elements of the human experience. However, memory, as adults experience it, takes…

 Developmental Psychology

Ostracism: Effects of Being Ignored Over the Internet

JoVE 10336

Source: Peter Mende-Siedlecki & Jay Van Bavel—New York University


Social ostracism is defined as being ignored and excluded in the presence of others. This experience is a pervasive and powerful social phenomenon, observed in both animals and humans, throughout all stages of human development, and across all manner of dyadic…

 Social Psychology

Stress Distribution During Cold Compression of Rocks and Mineral Aggregates Using Synchrotron-based X-Ray Diffraction

1Mineral Physics Institute, Department of Geoscience, Stony Brook University, 2Geological Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3Rock and Ice Physics Laboratory, Department of Earth Sciences, University College London, 4Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University

JoVE 57555

 Environment

Studying Soft-matter and Biological Systems over a Wide Length-scale from Nanometer and Micrometer Sizes at the Small-angle Neutron Diffractometer KWS-2

1Jülich Centre for Neutron Science Outstation at MLZ, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 2Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, 3Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS-1 & Institute of Complex Systems ICS-1, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 4Central Institute of Engineering, Electronics and Analytics — Electronic Systems (ZEA-2), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 5Central Institute of Engineering, Electronics and Analytics — Engineering and Technology (ZEA-1), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH

JoVE 54639

 Bioengineering

Methods of Soil Resampling to Monitor Changes in the Chemical Concentrations of Forest Soils

1New York Water Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, 2School of Forest Resources, University of Maine, 3Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, 4Northern Research Station, U.S. Forest Service, 5Department of Plant and Soil Science, University of Vermont, 6Ottauquechee NRCD, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, 7Green Mountain National Forest, U.S. Forest Service, 8Direction de la Recherche Forestière, Ministère du Québec, 9Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Syracuse University, 10Division of Environmental Science, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, 11White Mountain National Forest, U.S. Forest Service, 12Natural Resources and Earth System Sciences, University of New Hampshire, 13Greenwich, NY Field Office, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service

JoVE 54815

 Environment

Performing Permanent Distal Middle Cerebral with Common Carotid Artery Occlusion in Aged Rats to Study Cortical Ischemia with Sustained Disability

1Wolfson Centre for Age-Related Diseases, King's College London, University of London, 2Department of Neuroimaging, James Black Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, University of London, 3Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, Wellcome Surgical Institute, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, 4Research Service, Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital, 5Neurology Service, Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital, 6Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Neuroscience Research Institute, Loyola University Chicago, 7Department of Oncology, The Gray Institute for Radiation, Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford

JoVE 53106

 Medicine

Making Record-efficiency SnS Solar Cells by Thermal Evaporation and Atomic Layer Deposition

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2Laboratory for Manufacturing and Productivity, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 3School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 4Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5Department of Chemistry & Chemical Biology, Harvard University

JoVE 52705

 Engineering

Identifying DNA Mutations in Purified Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells

1Greehey Children's Cancer Research Institute, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, 2Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, 3Department of Pathology, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, 4Department of Microbiology, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, 5Cancer Therapy and Research Center, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio

JoVE 50752

 Immunology and Infection
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