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Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the Tibial nerve and the Peroneal nerve.

Implementation of a Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) System on a Ti:Sapphire and OPO Laser Based Standard Laser Scanning Microscope

1INSERM U1051, Institut des Neurosciences de Montpellier (INM), Université de Montpellier, 2Université de Nîmes, 3CNRS, IES, UMR 5214, 4Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, École Centrale Marseille, Institut Fresnel, UMR 7249, 5Montpellier RIO Imaging (MRI)

JoVE 54262


 Biology

Electrophysiological Motor Unit Number Estimation (MUNE) Measuring Compound Muscle Action Potential (CMAP) in Mouse Hindlimb Muscles

1Department of Neurology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, The Ohio State University, 3Department of Neuroscience, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 4Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center

JoVE 52899


 Behavior

Transplantation of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells to Evaluate Functional Recovery after Peripheral Nerve Injury

1UPRES EA3830, Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine, University of Rouen, 2Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 3Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Department, Rouen University Hospital, 4Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Department, Amiens University Hospital

JoVE 50590


 Neuroscience

Automated Gait Analysis in Mice with Chronic Constriction Injury

1Department of Physiology and Medical Science, College of Medicine and Brain Research Institute, Chungnam National University, 2KM Fundamental Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine (KIOM), 3Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56402


 JoVE In-Press

Motor Exam I

JoVE 10052

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Abnormalities in the motor function are associated with a wide range of diseases, from movement disorders and myopathies to strokes. The motor assessment starts with observation of the patient. When the patient enters the examination area, the clinician observes the patient's ability to walk unassisted and the speed and coordination while moving. Taking the patient's history provides an additional opportunity to observe for evidence of tremors or other abnormal movements, such as chorea or tardive dyskinesia. Such simple but important observations can yield valuable clues to the diagnosis and help to focus the rest of the examination. The motor assessment continues in a systematic fashion, including inspection for muscle atrophy and abnormal movements, assessment of muscle tone, muscle strength testing, and finally the examination of the muscle reflexes and coordination. The careful systematic testing of the motor system and the integration of all the findings provide insight to the level at which the motor pathway is affected, and also help the clinician to formulate the differential diagnosis and determine the course of the subsequent evaluation and treatment.


 Physical Examinations III

Sensory Exam

JoVE 10113

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

A complete sensory examination consists of testing primary sensory modalities as well as cortical sensory function. Primary sensory modalities include pain, temperature, light touch, vibration, and joint position sense. Sensation of the face is discussed in the videos Cranial Nerves Exam I and II, as are the special senses of smell, vision, taste, and hearing. The spinothalamic tract mediates pain and temperature information from skin to thalamus. The spinothalamic fibers decussate (cross over) 1-2 spinal nerve segments above the point of entry, then travel up to the brainstem until they synapse on various nuclei in thalamus. From the thalamus, information is then relayed to the cortical areas such as the postcentral gyrus (also known as the primary somatosensory cortex). Afferent fibers transmitting vibration and proprioception travel up to medulla in the ipsilateral posterior columns as fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus, which carry information from the lower limbs and upper limbs, respectively. Subsequently, the afferent projections cross over and ascend to the thalamus, and from there to the primary somatosensory cortex. The pattern of a


 Physical Examinations III

Lower Back Exam

JoVE 10177

Source: Robert E. Sallis, MD. Kaiser Permanente, Fontana, California, USA

The back is the most common source of pain in the body. Examination of the back can be a challenge due to its numerous structures, including the bones, discs, ligaments, nerves, and muscles-all of which can generate pain. Sometimes, the location of the pain can be suggestive of etiology. The essential components of the lower back exam include inspection and palpation for signs of deformity and inflammation, evaluation of the range of motion (ROM) of the back, testing the strength of the muscles innervated by the nerves exiting in the lumbar-sacral spine, neurological evaluation, and special tests (including the Stork test and Patrick's test).


 Physical Examinations III

A Unified Methodological Framework for Vestibular Schwannoma Research

1Eaton Peabody Laboratories, Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, 2Department of Otolaryngology, Harvard Medical School, 3Department of Otolaryngology, Vienna General Hospital, Medical University of Vienna, 4Program in Speech and Hearing Bioscience and Technology, Harvard Medical School

JoVE 55827


 Cancer Research

Improved 3D Hydrogel Cultures of Primary Glial Cells for in Vitro Modelling of Neuroinflammation

1Department of Psychiatry, University of Alberta, 2Alberta Innovates-Health Solutions Interdisciplinary Team in Smart Neural Prostheses (Project SMART), University of Alberta, 3Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, 4Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Alberta, 5Centre for Neuroscience, University of Alberta

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56615


 JoVE In-Press

In Vivo Evaluation of Fracture Callus Development During Bone Healing in Mice Using an MRI-compatible Osteosynthesis Device for the Mouse Femur

1Institute of Orthopedic Research and Biomechanics, University Medical Center Ulm, 2RISystem, 3Core Facility Small Animal MRI, University Medical Center Ulm, 4Department of Traumatology, Hand-, Plastic-, and Reconstructive Surgery, University Medical Center Ulm

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56679


 JoVE In-Press

Creation and Transplantation of an Adipose-derived Stem Cell (ASC) Sheet in a Diabetic Wound-healing Model

1Diabetic Center, Tokyo Women's Medical University School of Medicine, 2The Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 3The Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Tokyo Women's Medical University School of Medicine

JoVE 54539


 Medicine

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