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Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.

Self-report vs. Behavioral Measures of Recycling

JoVE 10050

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University

One of the challenges in measuring an experimental variable is identifying the technique that will produce the more accurate measurement. The most common way to measure a dependent variable is self-report—asking the participant to describe his/her feelings, thoughts, or behaviors. Yet, people may not be honest. To truly know something about a participant, it may be necessary to see what they actually do in a situation. This video uses a multi-group experiment to see if feeling close to others results in more favorable attitudes toward environmental consciousness measured both by self-report and behavioral observation. Psychological studies often use higher sample sizes than studies in other sciences. A large number of participants helps to better ensure that the population under study is better represented, i.e., the margin of error accompanied by studying human behavior is sufficiently accounted for. In this video, we demonstrate this experiment using just one participant. However, as represented in the results, we used a total of 186 participants to reach the experiment’s conclusions.


 Experimental Psychology

Description of a Novel, Surgically Implanted Neuromodulatory Technique Known As Bilateral Epidural Prefrontal Cortical Stimulation (Epcs) for Treatment-Resistant Depression (TRD)

1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 2Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 3Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, 4Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, 5American University of Beirut Medical Center

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56043


 JoVE In-Press

The Multiple Sclerosis Performance Test (MSPT): An iPad-Based Disability Assessment Tool

1Mellen Center for Multiple Sclerosis Treatment and Research, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 2Center for Brain Health, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 3Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation

JoVE 51318


 Medicine

The Implicit Association Test

JoVE 10368

Source: Julian Wills & Jay Van Bavel—New York University

One of the core constructs in social psychology is the notion of an attitude toward an object or person. Traditionally, psychologists measured attitudes by simply asking people to self-report their beliefs, opinions, or feelings. This approach has limitations, however, when measuring socially sensitive attitudes, like racial prejudice, because people are often motivated to self-report unprejudiced, egalitarian beliefs (despite harboring negative associations). In order to bypass this social-desirability bias, psychologists have developed a number of tasks that attempt to measure implicit attitudes that are less amenable to deliberate control (and potential distortion). The Implicit Association Test, or IAT, is one of the most influential measures of these unconscious attitudes. The IAT was first introduced in a 1998 paper by Anthony Greenwald and colleagues.1 This video will demonstrate how to conduct the IAT used in the final experiment, where European American participants (who report explicit egalitarian attitudes) exhibit implicit preferences for their own race.


 Social Psychology

Assessing the Multiple Dimensions of Engagement to Characterize Learning: A Neurophysiological Perspective

1Department of Didactics, Université du Québec à Montréal, 2Department of IT and Tech3Lab, HEC Montreal, 3Department of Marketing and Tech3Lab, HEC Montreal, 4Department of Specialized Education, Université du Québec à Montréal

JoVE 52627


 Behavior

A Method for Quantifying Upper Limb Performance in Daily Life Using Accelerometers

1Program in Physical Therapy, Washington University School of Medicine, 2Program in Occupational Therapy, Washington University School of Medicine, 3Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 5Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University

JoVE 55673


 Medicine

Use of the Operant Orofacial Pain Assessment Device (OPAD) to Measure Changes in Nociceptive Behavior

1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Florida College of Dentistry, 2Department of Neuroscience, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida College of Medicine, 3Stoelting Co., 4Department of Orthodontics, University of Florida

JoVE 50336


 Behavior

A Component-resolved Diagnostic Approach for a Study on Grass Pollen Allergens in Chinese Southerners with Allergic Rhinitis and/or Asthma

1State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, 2National Clinical Research Center of Respiratory Disease, 3Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Diseases, 4Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, 5Department of Respiratory Medicine, Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University

JoVE 55723


 Medicine

MRI-guided dmPFC-rTMS as a Treatment for Treatment-resistant Major Depressive Disorder

1Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, 2MRI-Guided rTMS Clinic, University Health Network, 3Department of Psychiatry, University Health Network, 4Toronto Western Research Institute, University Health Network, 5Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 6Faculty of Arts and Science, University of Toronto, 7Temerty Centre for Therapeutic Brain Intervention, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health

JoVE 53129


 Medicine

Electroencephalographic, Heart Rate, and Galvanic Skin Response Assessment for an Advertising Perception Study: Application to Antismoking Public Service Announcements

1Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, 2Department of Communication and Social Research, Sapienza University of Rome, 3Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic, and Orthopedic Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, 4BrainSigns SRL

JoVE 55872


 Neuroscience

Exergaming in Older People Living with HIV Improves Balance, Mobility and Ameliorates Some Aspects of Frailty

1Department of Surgery, Interdisciplinary Consortium on Advanced Motion Performance (iCAMP), College of Medicine, University of Arizona, 2Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, 3Interdisciplinary Consortium on Advanced Motion Performance (iCAMP), Division of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapy, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine

JoVE 54275


 Medicine

An Investigation of the Effects of Sports-related Concussion in Youth Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and the Head Impact Telemetry System

1Graduate Department of Rehabilitation Science, University of Toronto, 2Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University of Toronto, 3Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 4Bloorview Kids Rehab, 5Toronto Rehab, 6Cognitive Neurology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 7Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto

JoVE 2226


 Medicine

A Community-based Stress Management Program: Using Wearable Devices to Assess Whole Body Physiological Responses in Non-laboratory Settings

1Department of Emergency Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center, 2Department of Integrative Physiology, The University of North Texas Health Science Center, 3Works of Wonder International, 4DeVos Graduate Sports Business Management Program, University of Central Florida

JoVE 55816


 Behavior

Studying Food Reward and Motivation in Humans

1Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, 2Metabolic Research Laboratories, Wellcome Trust-MRC Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, 3Cambridgeshire & Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust, University of Cambridge, 4West Anglia Comprehensive Local Research Network, Addenbrooke's Hospital

JoVE 51281


 Behavior

A Protocol for the Use of Remotely-Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

1Multiple Sclerosis Comprehensive Care Center, Department of Neurology, NYU Langone Medical Center, 2Department of Neurology, Stony Brook Medicine, 3Soterix Medical, Inc, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York

JoVE 53542


 Medicine

Marginal Dishonesty: The Adding-to-10 Task

JoVE 10307

Source: Julian Wills & Jay Van Bavel—New York University

Classical economic theory asserts that people are rational and self-interested. In addition to seeking wealth and status, people are motivated by other goals. As a result, financial motives can sometimes be dwarfed by other internal needs, such as maintaining a positive self-concept or affiliating with other group members. Ethical dilemmas, such as the temptation to cheat on taxes, can result when these motives are in conflict. On the one hand, people may be tempted to save money by underreporting their taxable income. On the other hand, no one wants to perceive themselves as a dishonest, free-rider. As a result, people are reluctant to fully exploit unethical opportunities because doing so can severely undermine their self-image as morally upstanding individuals. Instead, people cheat to a much smaller degree than they are capable of: just enough to gain additional resources, but not so much as to compromise their self-image. This tendency for marginal dishonesty, or the "fudge factor," is an important principle in social psychology and can be tested through a variety of techniques. Mazar, Amir, and Ariely originally described six separate experiments involving (dis)honesty and a theory of se


 Social Psychology

A Protocol for Measuring Cue Reactivity in a Rat Model of Cocaine Use Disorder

1Center for Addiction Research, University of Texas Medical Branch, 2Institute for Translational Sciences, University of Texas Medical Branch, 3Mitchell Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, 4Department of Neurology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 5Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 6Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas Medical Branch

JoVE 55864


 Neuroscience

Inducing Emotions

JoVE 10308

Source: William Brady & Jay Van Bavel—New York University

Psychologists have long known that people behave differently in good moods versus bad moods, and this general principle extends to consumer behavior. Economists, as well, have come to appreciate that an individual’s financial decisions are not solely the result of extensive cost-benefit calculations; other factors like emotion are at play. Further, incidental emotions affect the behavior of buyers and sellers even though they are unrelated to the transaction at hand. While earlier research focused on the impact of global feelings (positive-negative), more recent research examines more specific emotions (e.g., anger and fear). In consumer settings, research shows that anger triggers greater risk-seeking behavior among buyers and sellers and that fear triggers the opposite, i.e., conservative behavior.   The following experiment tests how two specific negative emotions—disgust and sadness—influence people’s financial valuation of objects.1 The experiment examines the relationships between induced emotional states (disgust and sadness) and the endowment effect. Inherent in this experiment is a common technique for inducing specific emotions in a laboratory setting. Onc


 Social Psychology

Real-time fMRI Biofeedback Targeting the Orbitofrontal Cortex for Contamination Anxiety

1Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, 3Yale Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, 4Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Yale University School of Medicine

JoVE 3535


 Medicine

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