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Semicircular Canals: Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (Vestibular labyrinth). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the Semicircular ducts.

A Surgical Procedure for the Administration of Drugs to the Inner Ear in a Non-Human Primate Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

1Division of Regenerative Medicine, Jikei University School of Medicine, 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Jikei University School of Medicine, 3Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 4Laboratory Animal Facilities, Jikei University School of Medicine

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JoVE 56574


 JoVE In-Press

Cranial Nerves Exam II (VII-XII)

JoVE 10005

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

The cranial nerve examination follows the mental status evaluation in a neurological exam. However, the examination begins with observations made upon greeting the patient. For example, weakness of the facial muscles (which are innervated by cranial nerve VII) can be readily apparent during the first encounter with the patient. Cranial nerve VII (the facial nerve) also has sensory branches, which innervate the taste buds on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and the medial aspect of the external auditory canal. Therefore, finding ipsilateral taste dysfunction in a patient with facial weakness confirms the involvement of cranial nerve VII. In addition, knowledge of the neuroanatomy helps the clinician to localize the level of the lesion: unilateral weakness of the lower facial muscles suggests a supranuclear lesion on the opposite side, while lesions involving the nuclear or infranuclear portion of the facial nerve manifest with an ipsilateral paralysis of all the facial muscles on the involved side. Cranial nerve VIII (the acoustic nerve) has two divisions: the hearing (cochlear) division and the vestibular division, which innervates the semi


 Physical Examinations III

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