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Seminal Vesicles: A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Diagnostic Necropsy and Tissue Harvest

JoVE 10294

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

Many animal experiments rely on final data collection time points that are gathered from the harvesting and testing of organs and tissues. The use of appropriate methods for the collection of organs and tissues can impact the quality of the samples and the analysis of the data that is gleaned for the testing of the tissues. The method of euthanasia of the animal can also impact the quality of the samples. This manuscript will outline proper necropsy techniques for rats.


 Lab Animal Research

Standardized Colon Ascendens Stent Peritonitis in Rats - a Simple, Feasible Animal Model to Induce Septic Acute Kidney Injury

1Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Center, 2Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, University of Würzburg, 3Department of General, Visceral, Vascular and Paediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery I, University of Würzburg, 4Department of Internal Medicine I, Division of Nephrology, University Hospital Würzburg, 5Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, West Virginia University School of Medicine

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JoVE 54448


 JoVE In-Press

Sterile Tissue Harvest

JoVE 10298

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

In 1959 The 3 R's were introduced by W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch in their book The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The 3 R's are replacement, reduction, and refinement of the use of animals in research.1 The use of cell lines and tissue cultures that originated from research animals is a replacement technique, as it allows for many experiments to be conducted in vitro. Harvesting tissues and organs for use in cell and tissue cultures requires aseptic technique to avoid contamination of the tissues. Sterile harvest is also necessary for protein and RNA analysis and metabolic profiling of tissues. This manuscript will discuss the process of sterile organ harvest in rats and mice.


 Lab Animal Research

An Introduction to Endocytosis and Exocytosis

JoVE 5646

Cells can take in substances from the extracellular environment by endocytosis and actively release molecules into it by exocytosis. Such processes involve lipid membrane-bound sacs called vesicles. Knowledge of the molecular architecture and mechanisms of both is key to understanding normal cell physiology, as well as the disease states that arise when they become defective. This video will first briefly review a few pivotal discoveries in the history of endo- and exocytosis research. Next, some key questions will be examined, followed by a discussion of the prominent methods used to investigate these problems, including cell labeling, fusion assays, and fluorescence imaging. Finally, it will explore current research being conducted by scientists in the field today.


 Cell Biology

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Preparation of Giant Vesicles Exhibiting Visible-light-induced Morphological Changes

1Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Applied Science, National Defense Academy of Japan, 2Department of Applied Physics, School of Applied Science, National Defense Academy of Japan, 3Department of Materials Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Niigata University

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JoVE 54817


 JoVE In-Press

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The C. elegans Excretory Canal as a Model for Intracellular Lumen Morphogenesis and In Vivo Polarized Membrane Biogenesis in a Single Cell

1Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Developmental Biology and Genetics Core, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Harvard Medical School, 2College of Life Sciences, Jilin University, 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau

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JoVE 56101


 JoVE In-Press

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Reconstitution of a Transmembrane Protein, the Voltage-gated Ion Channel, KvAP, into Giant Unilamellar Vesicles for Microscopy and Patch Clamp Studies

1Institut Curie, Centre de Recherche, CNRS, UMR 168, PhysicoChimie Curie, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 2Kavli Institute for Brain and Mind, University of California, San Diego, 3Molecular Physiology and Biophysics Section, National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institute of Health

JoVE 52281


 Biology

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Live Cell Imaging and 3D Analysis of Angiotensin Receptor Type 1a Trafficking in Transfected Human Embryonic Kidney Cells Using Confocal Microscopy

1Department of Biochemistry, Georgetown University Medical Center, 2Department of Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center, 3Department of Physics, Georgetown University Medical Center, 4Department of Oncology, Georgetown University Medical Center

JoVE 55177


 Biology

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Characterizing the Composition of Molecular Motors on Moving Axonal Cargo Using "Cargo Mapping" Analysis

1Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, Dorris Neuroscience Center, The Scripps Research Institute, 2Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California San Diego, 3Department of Bioengineering, University of California San Diego, 4Department of Neurosciences, University of California San Diego School of Medicine

JoVE 52029


 Neuroscience

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SNARE-mediated Fusion of Single Proteoliposomes with Tethered Supported Bilayers in a Microfluidic Flow Cell Monitored by Polarized TIRF Microscopy

1Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine, 2Nanobiology Institute, Yale University, 3Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, 4Laboratoire de Neurophotonique, Université Paris Descartes, Faculté des Sciences Fondamentales et Biomédicales, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)

JoVE 54349


 Neuroscience

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Legionella pneumophila Outer Membrane Vesicles: Isolation and Analysis of Their Pro-inflammatory Potential on Macrophages

1Institute for Lung Research, Universities of Giessen and Marburg Lung Center, Philipps-University Marburg, 2German Center for Lung Research, 3Department of Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University Medical Center Giessen and Marburg

JoVE 55146


 Immunology and Infection

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A Noninvasive Method For In situ Determination of Mating Success in Female American Lobsters (Homarus americanus)

1Department of Biological Sciences, University of New Hampshire, 2Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries, 3Division of Natural Sciences & Mathematics, College of General Studies, Boston University, 4Rhode Island Nursing Institute, Middle College

JoVE 50498


 Environment

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TIRFM and pH-sensitive GFP-probes to Evaluate Neurotransmitter Vesicle Dynamics in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells: Cell Imaging and Data Analysis

1Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, 2San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute University, 3CEND Center of Excellence in Neurodegenerative Diseases, Università degli Studi di Milano

JoVE 52267


 Neuroscience

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Preparation of Giant Vesicles Encapsulating Microspheres by Centrifugation of a Water-in-oil Emulsion

1Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Japan Women's University, 2Department of Bioorganization Research, Okazaki Institute for Integrative Bioscience, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 3Department of Life and Coordination-Complex Molecular Science, Institute for Molecular Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 4Research Center for Complex Systems Biology, The University of Tokyo

JoVE 55282


 Biochemistry

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Pulling Membrane Nanotubes from Giant Unilamellar Vesicles

1Laboratoire Physico Chimie Curie, Institut Curie, PSL Research University, 2Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, T. H. Chan School of Public Health, and Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 3Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4Center for studies in Physics and Biology, The Rockefeller University

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JoVE 56086


 JoVE In-Press

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Flow Virometry to Analyze Antigenic Spectra of Virions and Extracellular Vesicles

1Section on Intercellular Interactions, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, 2Laboratory of Atherothrombosis, Cardiology Department, Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry, 3Sidra Medical and Research Center

JoVE 55020


 Immunology and Infection

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The C. elegans Intestine As a Model for Intercellular Lumen Morphogenesis and In Vivo Polarized Membrane Biogenesis at the Single-cell Level

1Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Developmental Biology and Genetics Core, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2College of Life Sciences, Jilin University, 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau

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JoVE 56100


 JoVE In-Press

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