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A Behavioral Assay for Mechanosensation of MARCM-based Clones in Drosophila melanogaster

1Department of Biology, College of the Holy Cross, 2School of Medicine, Georgetown University, 3Department of Biochemistry, Giesel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College, 4School of Medicine, Tufts University, 5Transgenomic Inc., 6Department of Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology, UMass Medical School

JoVE 53537


 Neuroscience

Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Skeletal Muscle Disease

1Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, 2Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, 4Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, 5Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University, 6Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University

JoVE 52352


 Medicine

Understanding Early Organogenesis Using a Simplified In Situ Hybridization Protocol in Xenopus

1Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Hospital for Sick Children, 2Children's Health Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, 3Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Western Ontario, 4Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children, 5Department of Paediatrics, University of Western Ontario

JoVE 51526


 Developmental Biology

Sterile Tissue Harvest

JoVE 10298

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

In 1959 The 3 R's were introduced by W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch in their book The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The 3 R's are replacement, reduction, and refinement of the use of animals in research.1 The use of cell lines and tissue cultures that originated from research animals is a replacement technique, as it allows for many experiments to be conducted in vitro. Harvesting tissues and organs for use in cell and tissue cultures requires aseptic technique to avoid contamination of the tissues. Sterile harvest is also necessary for protein and RNA analysis and metabolic profiling of tissues. This manuscript will discuss the process of sterile organ harvest in rats and mice.


 Lab Animal Research

Measurement of Extracellular Ion Fluxes Using the Ion-selective Self-referencing Microelectrode Technique

1Department of Dermatology, Institute for Regenerative Cures, University of California, Davis, 2Departamento de Biologia, Centro de Biologia Molecular e Ambiental, Universidade do Minho, 3Department of Neurology and Center for Neuroscience, University of California, Davis Imaging of Dementia and Aging Laboratory, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Institute for Regenerative Cures, University of California, Davis

JoVE 52782


 Biology

Assessment of the Cytotoxic and Immunomodulatory Effects of Substances in Human Precision-Cut Lung Slices

1Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH), 2Institute for Pathology, Hannover Medical School, Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH), 3Division of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Klinikum Region Hannover (KRH), 4Department of Cardiothoracic, Transplantation and Vascular Surgery (HTTG), Hannover Medical School, Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH), 5Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, RWTH Aachen University, 6Institute for Immunology, Hannover Medical School, Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH)

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 57042


 JoVE In-Press

Cranial Nerves Exam II (VII-XII)

JoVE 10005

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

The cranial nerve examination follows the mental status evaluation in a neurological exam. However, the examination begins with observations made upon greeting the patient. For example, weakness of the facial muscles (which are innervated by cranial nerve VII) can be readily apparent during the first encounter with the patient. Cranial nerve VII (the facial nerve) also has sensory branches, which innervate the taste buds on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and the medial aspect of the external auditory canal. Therefore, finding ipsilateral taste dysfunction in a patient with facial weakness confirms the involvement of cranial nerve VII. In addition, knowledge of the neuroanatomy helps the clinician to localize the level of the lesion: unilateral weakness of the lower facial muscles suggests a supranuclear lesion on the opposite side, while lesions involving the nuclear or infranuclear portion of the facial nerve manifest with an ipsilateral paralysis of all the facial muscles on the involved side. Cranial nerve VIII (the acoustic nerve) has two divisions: the hearing (cochlear) division and the vestibular division, which innervates the semi


 Physical Examinations III

Three-dimensional Tissue Engineered Aligned Astrocyte Networks to Recapitulate Developmental Mechanisms and Facilitate Nervous System Regeneration

1Center for Brain Injury & Repair, Department of Neurosurgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 2Center for Neurotrauma, Neurodegeneration & Restoration, Michael J. Crescenz Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 3School of Biomedical Engineering, Drexel University, 4Department of Bioengineering, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, University of Pennsylvania, 5Neuroscience Graduate Group, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 55848


 JoVE In-Press

Isolation of Primary Human Colon Tumor Cells from Surgical Tissues and Culturing Them Directly on Soft Elastic Substrates for Traction Cytometry

1Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 3Provena Covenant Medical Centre, 4Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

JoVE 52532


 Bioengineering

Scanning Electron Microscopy of Macerated Tissue to Visualize the Extracellular Matrix

1Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 2Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 3Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 4Cardiovascular Institute, Maine Medical Center

JoVE 54005


 Biology

Using fMRI to Dissect Moral Judgment

JoVE 10306

Source: William Brady & Jay Van Bavel—New York University

In examining the roles of reason and emotion in moral judgments, psychologists and philosophers alike point to the trolley dilemma and the footbridge dilemma. With the trolley dilemma, most people say that it is appropriate to pull a switch to stop a train from hitting five people by diverting it to kill one person. However, with the footbridge dilemma, most people say it is inappropriate to push a large man off of a bridge in order to hit a train (killing him) and stop it from running into five people. Reason would dictate that in both of the foregoing dilemmas, one life should be sacrificed to save five lives. But to many people, pushing the large man just “feels wrong” because it triggers more negative emotions than pulling a switch. In this case, emotion seems to trump reason.   In recent years, psychology and neuroscience have entered the debate over the roles of reason and emotion in moral judgment. Researchers can scan brain activity as individuals make making moral judgments. Research shows that different brain areas associated are active during contemplation of the footbridge dilemma versus the trolley dilemma. Inspired by Greene, Sommerville, Nystrom, Darley and Cohen, thi


 Social Psychology

Measuring Growth and Gene Expression Dynamics of Tumor-Targeted S. Typhimurium Bacteria

1Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2Department of Bioengineering, University of California, San Diego, 3Biocircuits Institute, University of California, San Diego, 4Molecular Biology Section, Division of Biological Science, University of California, San Diego, 5Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, 6Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 7Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 8Howard Hughes Medical Institute

JoVE 50540


 Immunology and Infection

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