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Sodium Azide: A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)

C. elegans Chemotaxis Assay

JoVE 5113

Chemotaxis is a process in which cells or organisms move in response to a chemical stimulus. In nature, chemotaxis is important for organisms to sense and move toward food sources and move away from stimuli that may be toxic or harmful. Chemotaxis is also important at the cellular level. For example, chemotaxis is required for the movement of sperm toward an egg prior to fertilization. In the lab, chemotaxis is frequently examined in the nematode, C. elegans, which is known to migrate towards food sources in soil, but away from toxins such as heavy metals, substances with a low pH, and detergents. This video demonstrates how to perform a chemotaxis assay, which includes preparing the chemotaxis plates and the worms, running the assay, and analyzing the data. Then, we discuss examples of how chemotaxis assays can be used in C. elegans as a tool to understand learning and memory, olfactory adaptation, and neurological disease such as Alzheimer"s disease. Chemotaxis experiments in C. elegans have near-limitless possibilities for learning more about the cellular and genetic mechanisms of many biological processes, and may lead to a greater understanding of human biology, development, and disease.


 Biology I

RNAi in C. elegans

JoVE 5105

RNA interference (RNAi) is a widely used technique in which double stranded RNA is exogenously introduced into an organism, causing knockdown of a target gene. In the nematode, C. elegans, RNAi is particularly easy and effective because it can be delivered simply by feeding the worms bacteria that express double stranded RNA (dsRNA) that is complementary to a gene of interest. First, this video will introduce the concept of RNA interference and explain how it causes targeted gene knockdown. Then, we will demonstrate a protocol for using RNAi in C. elegans, which includes preparation of the bacteria and RNAi worm plates, culturing of the worms, and how to assess the effects of RNAi on the worms. RNAi is frequently used to perform reverse genetic screens in order to reveal which genes are important to carry out specific biological processes. Furthermore, automated reverse genetic screens allow for the efficient knockdown and analysis of a large collection of genes. Lastly, RNAi is often used to study the development of C. elegans. Since its discovery, scientists have used RNAi to make tremendous progress on the understanding of many biological phenomena.


 Biology I

Analyzing Cellular Internalization of Nanoparticles and Bacteria by Multi-spectral Imaging Flow Cytometry

1Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Iowa State University, 2Amnis Corporation, 3Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University

JoVE 3884


 Bioengineering

The C. elegans Intestine As a Model for Intercellular Lumen Morphogenesis and In Vivo Polarized Membrane Biogenesis at the Single-cell Level: Labeling by Antibody Staining, RNAi Loss-of-function Analysis and Imaging

1Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Developmental Biology and Genetics Core, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2College of Life Sciences, Jilin University, 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau

JoVE 56100


 Developmental Biology

In Vitro and In Vivo Detection of Mitophagy in Human Cells, C. Elegans, and Mice

1Laboratory of Molecular Gerontology, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 2Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas, 3Center for Molecular Medicine, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, 4Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 5Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Oxford, 6Department of Clinical Molecular Biology, University of Oslo and Akershus University Hospital, 7Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, 8Danish Center for Healthy Aging, University of Copenhagen

JoVE 56301


 Medicine

Rapid Detection of Neurodevelopmental Phenotypes in Human Neural Precursor Cells (NPCs)

1Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 2Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 3The Child Health Institute of NJ, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Services, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 4The Child Health Institute of NJ, Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 5Department of Genetics, Rutgers University

JoVE 56628


 Developmental Biology

A Semi-automated Approach to Preparing Antibody Cocktails for Immunophenotypic Analysis of Human Peripheral Blood

1Human Immune Monitoring Laboratory, Earle A. Chiles Research Institute, Providence Cancer Center, Providence Portland Medical Center, 2Sony Biotechnology, 3Beckman Coulter, Inc. Life Sciences, 4Bristol-Myers Squibb

JoVE 53485


 Immunology and Infection

Stable and Efficient Genetic Modification of Cells in the Adult Mouse V-SVZ for the Analysis of Neural Stem Cell Autonomous and Non-autonomous Effects

1Cell Division and Cancer Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), 2Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), 3Departmento de Biologìa Celular, Universidad de Valencia, 4Institut de Biomedicina de la Universitat de Barcelona (IBUB), 5Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Fibroblast Reprogramming Unit, University of Brescia

JoVE 53282


 Developmental Biology

Flow Cytometric Detection of Newly-Formed Breast Cancer Stem Cell-like Cells After Apoptosis Reversal

1School of Life Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, 3Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine, Ministry of Education, Chinese University of Hong Kong, 4Centre for Novel Biomaterials, Chinese University of Hong Kong

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58642


 JoVE In-Press

Evaluating Virulence and Pathogenesis of Aeromonas Infection in a Caenorhabditis Elegans Model

1Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 2Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 4Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58768


 JoVE In-Press

Immunostimulatory Agent Evaluation: Lymphoid Tissue Extraction and Injection Route-Dependent Dendritic Cell Activation

1Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 2Department of Medical Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, 3Department of Chemistry, Pukyong National University, 4Marine-integrated Bionics Research Center, Pukyong National University, 5Department of Biochemistry, Chungbuk National University, 6Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center

JoVE 57640


 Immunology and Infection

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