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Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food. It plays an important biological role in maintaining the osmotic tension of blood and tissues. The Osmolar concentration this and other Salts accounts for Salinity which influences the types of organisms that live in an Environment.

Generation and On-Demand Initiation of Acute Ictal Activity in Rodent and Human Tissue

1Division of Fundamental Neurobiology, Krembil Research Institute, 2Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 3Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, 4Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, 5Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, 6Department of Physiology, University of Toronto

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 57952


 JoVE In-Press

Standardized Measurement of Nasal Membrane Transepithelial Potential Difference (NPD)

1Department of Medicine and the Gregory Fleming James Cystic Fibrosis Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 2Department of Pulmonology and Tuberculosis, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3Center for Experimental Medicine, Queens University, Northern Ireland, 4Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, 5Centro Fibrosi Cistica, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata, 6Service de Pneumologie et Allergologie Pédiatriques and Center de Ressources et de Compétence de la Mucoviscidose, Hôpital Necker Enfants Malades, 7INSERM U 1151, Institut Necker Enfants Malades

JoVE 57006


 Medicine

Engineering 'Golden' Fluorescence by Selective Pressure Incorporation of Non-canonical Amino Acids and Protein Analysis by Mass Spectrometry and Fluorescence

1Institute of Chemistry L 1, Department of Biocatalysis, Technical University of Berlin, 2Institute of Chemistry PC 14, Department of Bioenergetics, Technical University of Berlin, 3Institute of Chemistry TC 7, Department of Physical Chemistry/Molecular Material Sciences, Technical University of Berlin

JoVE 57017


 Bioengineering

Creating a Structurally Realistic Finite Element Geometric Model of a Cardiomyocyte to Study the Role of Cellular Architecture in Cardiomyocyte Systems Biology

1Cell Structure and Mechanobiology Group, University of Melbourne, 2Systems Biology Laboratory, Melbourne School of Engineering, University of Melbourne, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Melbourne, 4School of Mathematics and Statistics, Faculty of Science, University of Melbourne, 5Department of Engineering Science, University of Auckland, 6Advanced Microscopy Facility, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne, 7ARC Centre of Excellence in Convergent Bio-Nano Science and Technology, University of Melbourne, 8School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, 9Living Systems Institute, University of Exeter

JoVE 56817


 Bioengineering

Nucleophilic Substitution

JoVE 10465

Source: Vy M. Dong and Daniel Kim, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA

Nucleophilic substitution reactions are among the most fundamental topics covered in organic chemistry. A nucleophilic substitution reaction is one where a nucleophile (electron-rich Lewis base) replaces a leaving group from a carbon atom.

SN1 (S = Substitution, N = Nucleophilic, 1 = first-order kinetics) SN2 (S = Substitution, N = Nucleophilic, 2 = second-order kinetics) This video will help to visualize the subtle differences between an SN1 and SN2 reaction and what factors help to speed up each type of nucleophilic substitution reaction. The first section will focus on reactions that will help to better understand and learn about nucleophilic substitution reactions. The second section will focus on a real-world example of a substitution reaction.


 Organic Chemistry II

Measurement of Extracellular Ion Fluxes Using the Ion-selective Self-referencing Microelectrode Technique

1Department of Dermatology, Institute for Regenerative Cures, University of California, Davis, 2Departamento de Biologia, Centro de Biologia Molecular e Ambiental, Universidade do Minho, 3Department of Neurology and Center for Neuroscience, University of California, Davis Imaging of Dementia and Aging Laboratory, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Institute for Regenerative Cures, University of California, Davis

JoVE 52782


 Biology

Synthesis of Thermogelling Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-graft-chondroitin Sulfate Composites with Alginate Microparticles for Tissue Engineering

1Department of Chemical Engineering, Rowan University, 2Department of Biological Sciences, Rowan University, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Drexel University

JoVE 53704


 Bioengineering

Phosphopeptide Enrichment Coupled with Label-free Quantitative Mass Spectrometry to Investigate the Phosphoproteome in Prostate Cancer

1Graduate Program in Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, School of Graduate Studies, Rutgers University, The State University of New Jersey, 2Graduate Program in Quantitative Biomedicine, School of Graduate Studies, Rutgers University, The State University of New Jersey, 3Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 4Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, UCLA Metabolomics Center, and California NanoSystems Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 5Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, 6Pharmacology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 7Cancer Metabolism and Growth Program, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey

JoVE 57996


 Cancer Research

Phage Phenomics: Physiological Approaches to Characterize Novel Viral Proteins

1Department of Biology, San Diego State University, 2Computational Science Research Center, San Diego State University, 3Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics Research Center, San Diego State University, 4Department of Mathematics and Statistics, San Diego State University, 5Department of Computer Science, San Diego State University, 6Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 7SPARC Committee, Broad Institute

JoVE 52854


 Immunology and Infection

Automation of a Positron-emission Tomography (PET) Radiotracer Synthesis Protocol for Clinical Production

1SOFIE, 2Department of Molecular & Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), 3Ahmanson Translational Imaging Division, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), 4Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58428


 JoVE In-Press

Antimicrobial Peptides Produced by Selective Pressure Incorporation of Non-canonical Amino Acids

1Department of Biocatalysis, Institute of Chemistry, Technische Universität Berlin, 2Department of Bioenergetics, Institute of Chemistry, Technische Universität Berlin, 3Molecular Genetics Group, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Groningen

JoVE 57551


 Bioengineering

Polyelectrolyte Complex for Heparin Binding Domain Osteogenic Growth Factor Delivery

1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 2Centre for Research in Medical Devices (CÚRAM), National University of Ireland Galway, 3Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4Tissue Engineering Program, National University of Singapore, 5Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and the Orthopaedic Hospital Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles

JoVE 54202


 Bioengineering

Removal of Exogenous Materials from the Outer Portion of Frozen Cores to Investigate the Ancient Biological Communities Harbored Inside

1Biogeochemical Sciences Branch, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, US Army Engineer Research & Development Center, Hanover, NH, 2Environmental Processes Branch, Environmental Laboratory, US Army Engineer Research & Development Center, Vicksburg, MS, 3Terrestrial and Cryospheric Scienes Branch, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, US Army Engineer Research & Development Center, Hanover, NH, 4Biogeochemical Sciences Branch, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, US Army Engineer Research & Development Center, Fairbanks, AK

JoVE 54091


 Biology

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