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Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving general sensations. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.

Somatosensation

JoVE 10859

The somatosensory system relays sensory information from the skin, mucous membranes, limbs, and joints. Somatosensation is more familiarly known as the sense of touch. A typical somatosensory pathway includes three types of long neurons: primary, secondary, and tertiary. Primary neurons have cell bodies located near the spinal cord in groups of neurons called dorsal root ganglia. The sensory neurons of ganglia innervate designated areas of skin called dermatomes. In the skin, specialized structures called mechanoreceptors transduce mechanical pressure or distortion into neural signals. In hairless skin, most disturbances can be detected by one of four types of mechanoreceptors. Two of these, Merkel disks and Ruffini endings, are slow-adapting and continue to respond to stimuli that remain in prolonged contact with the skin. Merkel disks respond to light touch. Ruffini endings detect deeper static touch, skin stretch, joint deformation, and warmth. The other two major cutaneous mechanoreceptors, Meissner corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles, are rapidly-adapting. These mechanoreceptors detect dynamic stimuli, like those required to read Braille. Meissner corpuscles are responsive to delicate touch and pressure, as well as low-frequency vibrations. Pacinian corpuscles respond best to deep, repetitive pressure and high-frequency vibrations. Information detected

 Core: Sensory Systems

Sensory Exam

JoVE 10113

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA


A complete sensory examination consists of testing primary sensory modalities as well as cortical sensory function. Primary sensory modalities include pain, temperature, light touch, vibration,…

 Physical Examinations III

Nociception

JoVE 10873

Nociception—the ability to feel pain—is essential for an organism’s survival and overall well-being. Noxious stimuli such as piercing pain from a sharp object, heat from an open flame, or contact with corrosive chemicals are first detected by sensory receptors, called nociceptors, located on nerve endings. Nociceptors express ion channels that convert noxious stimuli into electrical signals. When these signals reach the brain via sensory neurons, they are perceived as pain. Thus, pain helps the organism avoid noxious stimuli. The immune system plays an essential role in pain pathology. Upon encountering noxious stimuli, immune cells such as mast cells and macrophages present at the site of injury release inflammatory chemicals such as cytokines, chemokines, histamines, and prostaglandins. These chemicals attract other immune cells such as monocytes and T cells to the injury site. They also stimulate nociceptors, resulting in hyperalgesia—a more intense response to a previously painful stimulus, or allodynia—a painful response to a normally innocuous stimulus such as light touch. Such pain sensitization helps protect the injured site during healing. In some cases, pain outlives its role as an acute warning system if sensitization fails to resolve over time. Chronic pain—persistent or recurrent pain lasting longer than t

 Core: Musculoskeletal System

Conscious and Non-conscious Representations of Emotional Faces in Asperger's Syndrome

1Institute of Statistical Science, Academia Sinica, 2Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, 3Department of Psychology, Fo Guang University, 4Department of Electrical Engineering, Fu Jen Catholic University, 5State Research Institute of Physiology and Basic Medicine, 6Novosibirsk State University, 7Imaging Research Center, Taipei Medical University

JoVE 53962

 Behavior

Structured Motor Rehabilitation After Selective Nerve Transfers

1Clinical Laboratory for Bionic Extremity Reconstruction, Medical University of Vienna, 2Bioengineering Department, Imperial College London, 3Master's Degree Program Health Assisting Engineering, University of Applied Sciences FH Campus Wien, 4Department of Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, 5Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Medical University of Vienna

JoVE 59840

 Medicine

Generation and On-Demand Initiation of Acute Ictal Activity in Rodent and Human Tissue

1Division of Fundamental Neurobiology, Krembil Research Institute, 2Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 3Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, 4Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, 5Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, 6Department of Physiology, University of Toronto

JoVE 57952

 Neuroscience

Flat-floored Air-lifted Platform: A New Method for Combining Behavior with Microscopy or Electrophysiology on Awake Freely Moving Rodents

1Neuroscience Center, University of Helsinki, 2Neurotar LTD, 3A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, 4Laboratory Animal Center, University of Helsinki

JoVE 51869

 Behavior

Extracellular Recording of Neuronal Activity Combined with Microiontophoretic Application of Neuroactive Substances in Awake Mice

1Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory, Institute of Neuroscience of Castilla y León, University of Salamanca, 2Neural Systems Laboratory, Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, 3Medical Research Council Institute of Hearing Research, 4Department of Cell Biology and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Salamanca

JoVE 53914

 Neuroscience

Chronic Implantation of Multiple Flexible Polymer Electrode Arrays

1Medical Scientist Training Program and Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of California San Francisco, 2Kavli Institute for Fundamental Neuroscience, Center for Integrative Neuroscience, and Department of Physiology, University of California San Francisco, 3Bioengineering Graduate Program, University of California San Francisco, 4Center for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 5Neuralink Corp., 6Howard Hughes Medical Institute

JoVE 59957

 Neuroscience

Stimulation Location Determination using a 3D Digitizer with High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

1Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, 2Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality, Ministry of Education, Southwest University, 3Southwest University Branch, Collaborative Innovation Center of Assessment toward Basic Education Quality at Beijing Normal University, 4Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5Chongqing Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 60263

 JoVE In-Press

A Method for Tracking the Time Evolution of Steady-State Evoked Potentials

1Advanced Center for Electrical and Electronic Engineering (AC3E), Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, 2Department of Electronic Engineering, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, 3Neuroinformatics Department, Cuban Neuroscience Center, 4Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en IngenierÍa, Universidad de Valparaíso

JoVE 59898

 Neuroscience

Convection Enhanced Delivery of Optogenetic Adeno-associated Viral Vector to the Cortex of Rhesus Macaque Under Guidance of Online MRI Images

1Departments of Bioengineering, University of Washington, 2Washington National Primate Research Center, 3Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Washington, 4Department of Physiology and Center for Integrative Neuroscience, University of California, San Francisco

JoVE 59232

 Neuroscience

Real-time Video Projection in an MRI for Characterization of Neural Correlates Associated with Mirror Therapy for Phantom Limb Pain

1Laboratory of Neuromodulation & Center for Clinical Research Learning, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical School, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, 2University of Chicago Medical Center, Department of Neurology, University of Chicago, 3Department of Neuroscience and Behavior, Psychology Institute, University of Sao Paulo, 4The Laboratory for Visual Neuroplasticity, Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, 5Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, 6Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 7Department of Psychology & Milan Center for Neuroscience, University of Milano-Bicocca, 8Neuropsychological Laboratory, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) Istituto Auxologico Italiano

JoVE 58800

 Neuroscience

Simultaneous Recordings of Cortical Local Field Potentials and Electrocorticograms in Response to Nociceptive Laser Stimuli from Freely Moving Rats

1CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, 2Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3Research Center of Brain Cognitive Neuroscience, Liaoning Normal University, 4Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University, 5Department of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, 6Key Laboratory for Neuroscience, Ministry of Education/National Health and Family Planning Commission, Peking University, 7Department of Pain Management, State Key Clinical Specialty in Pain Medicine, Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University

JoVE 58686

 Behavior

Characterization of the Sense of Agency over the Actions of Neural-machine Interface-operated Prostheses

1Laboratory for Bionic Integration, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 2Research Service, Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, 4Advanced Platform Technology Center, Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center

JoVE 58702

 Behavior

Chronic Implantation of Whole-cortical Electrocorticographic Array in the Common Marmoset

1Laboratory for Molecular Analysis of Higher Brain Function, RIKEN Center for Brain Science, 2Laboratory for Marmoset Neural Architecture, RIKEN Center for Brain Science, 3Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 4Department of Ultrastructural Research, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry

JoVE 58980

 Neuroscience

Neurovascular Network Explorer 2.0: A Simple Tool for Exploring and Sharing a Database of Optogenetically-evoked Vasomotion in Mouse Cortex In Vivo

1Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, 2Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, 3Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, 4Department of Physics, John Carroll University, 5Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, 6Bioengineering Undergraduate Program, University of California, San Diego, 7Institute of Physical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, 8Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School

JoVE 57214

 Neuroscience
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