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Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.

A Method for Measuring Metabolism in Sorted Subpopulations of Complex Cell Communities Using Stable Isotope Tracing

1Department of Medicine, Unit of Computational Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 2Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 3Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Division of Physiological Chemistry 2, Karolinska Institutet, 4Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego

JoVE 55011


 Biochemistry

MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

JoVE 5691

Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) is a mass spectrometry ion source ideal for the analysis of biomolecules. Instead of ionizing compounds in the gaseous state, samples are embedded in a matrix, which is struck by a laser. The matrix absorbs the majority of the energy; some of this energy is then transferred to the sample, which ionizes as a result. Sample ions can then be identified using a time-of-flight analyzer (TOF). This video covers principles of MALDI-TOF, including matrix selection and how TOF is used to elucidate mass-to-charge ratios. This procedure shows the preparation of a MALDI plate, the loading of samples onto the plate, and the operation of the TOF-mass spectrometer. In the final section, applications and variations are shown, including whole-cell analysis, characterization of complex biological samples, and electron spray ionization. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization, or MALDI, is a mass spectrometry ion source ideal for the analysis of biomolecules. Most ion sources remove structural information from large, fragile biomolecules. MALDI maintains structural integrity, and therefore information, while accelerating the molecules into the mass analyzer, which separates the compounds based on size and charge. The most commonly coupled with MALDI is the time of flight, or TOF,


 Biochemistry

Tandem Mass Spectrometry

JoVE 5690

In tandem mass spectrometry a biomolecule of interest is isolated from a biological sample, and then fragmented into multiple subunits in order to help elucidate its composition and sequence. This is accomplished by having mass spectrometers in series. The first spectrometer ionizes a sample and filter ions of a specific mass to charge ratio. Filtered ions are then fragmented and passed to a second mass spectrometer where the fragments are analyzed. This video introduces the principles of tandem mass spectrometry, including mass-to-ratio selection and dissociation methods. Also shown is a general procedure for analyzing a biochemical compound using tandem mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation. The applications section covers selection reaction monitoring, determination of protein post-translation modifications, and detection of tacrolimus levels in blood. Tandem mass spectrometry links together multiple stages of mass spectrometry to first isolate a biomolecule, and then determine aspects of its chemical makeup. Biomolecules have large, complex structures, making it difficult to determine their molecular composition. Tandem mass spectrometry selects a molecule of interest that is later fragmented into multiple subunits, which can help elucidate its identification and sequence. This video will show the


 Biochemistry

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Quantitative Detection of Trace Explosive Vapors by Programmed Temperature Desorption Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detector

1Chemical Sensing & Fuel Technology, Chemistry Division, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 2NOVA Research, Inc., 3Bio/Analytical Chemistry, Chemistry Division, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4Navy Technology Center for Safety and Survivability, Chemistry Division, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory

JoVE 51938


 Chemistry

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Rapid Identification of Gram Negative Bacteria from Blood Culture Broth Using MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

1Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Laboratory Services, Institute of Clinical Pathology and Medical Research, Westmead Hospital, 2Centre for Research Excellence in Critical Infection, Westmead Millennium Institute, Westmead Hospital, 3Sydney Emerging Infectious Diseases Institute, University of Sydney, Westmead Hospital

JoVE 51663


 Immunology and Infection

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