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Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
 JoVE Bioengineering

The Portable Chemical Sterilizer (PCS), D-FENS, and D-FEND ALL: Novel Chlorine Dioxide Decontamination Technologies for the Military

1United States Army-Natick Soldier RD&E Center, Warfighter Directorate, 2Department of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Connecticut Health Center, 3Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 4Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute


JoVE 4354

 JoVE Biology

Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Protocols for Problematic Plant, Oomycete, and Fungal Samples

1Biodiversity and Conservation Department, Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, 2Research Support Unit, Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, 3Mycology Department, Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, 4Division of Glycoscience, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH)


JoVE 55031

 Science Education: Essentials of Environmental Microbiology

Filamentous Fungi

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Dr. Ian Pepper and Dr. Charles Gerba - Arizona University
Demonstrating Author: Bradley Schmitz

Fungi are heterotrophic eukaryotic organisms, and with the exception of yeasts, are aerobic. They are abundant in surface soils and are important for their role in nutrient cycling and the decomposition of organic matter and organic contaminants. White rot fungi (phanerochaete chryosporium) for example, (Figure 1) are known to degrade aromatics. Figure 1. White rot on birch.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

A New Method for Qualitative Multi-scale Analysis of Bacterial Biofilms on Filamentous Fungal Colonies Using Confocal and Electron Microscopy

1Interactions Arbres – Microorganismes, UMR1136, INRA Université de Lorraine, 2Ecologie et Ecophysiologie Forestières - PTEF, UMR 1137, INRA Université de Lorraine, 3Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory


JoVE 54771

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Non-surgical Intratracheal Instillation of Mice with Analysis of Lungs and Lung Draining Lymph Nodes by Flow Cytometry

1Department of Immunology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 2Division of Cell Biology, Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Health, 3Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, 4Department of Immunology, National Jewish Health


JoVE 2702

 Science Education: Essentials of Environmental Microbiology

Visualizing Soil Microorganisms via the Contact Slide Assay and Microscopy

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Dr. Ian Pepper and Dr. Charles Gerba - Arizona University
Demonstrating Author: Bradley Schmitz

Soil comprises the thin layer at the earth’s surface, containing biotic and abiotic factors that contribute to life. The abiotic portion includes inorganic particles ranging in size and shape that determine the soil’s texture. The biotic portion incorporates plant residues, roots, organic matter, and microorganisms. Soil microbe abundance and diversity is expansive, as one gram of soil contains 107-8 bacteria, 106-8 actinomycetes, 105-6 fungi, 103 yeast, 104-6 protozoa, 103-4 algae, and 53 nematodes. Together, the biotic and abiotic factors form architectures around plant roots, known as the rhizosphere, that provide favorable conditions for soil microorganisms. Biotic and abiotic factors promote life in soils. However, they also contribute stressful dynamics that limit microbes. Biotic stress involves competition amongst life to adapt and survive in environmental conditions. For example, microbes can secrete inhibitory or toxic substances to harm neighboring microorganisms. Penicillium notatum is a notorious fungus, as it reduces competition for nutrients by producing an a

 Science Education: Essentials of Biology 1

RNAi in C. elegans

JoVE Science Education

RNA interference (RNAi) is a widely used technique in which double stranded RNA is exogenously introduced into an organism, causing knockdown of a target gene. In the nematode, C. elegans, RNAi is particularly easy and effective because it can be delivered simply by feeding the worms bacteria that express double stranded RNA (dsRNA) that is complementary to a gene of interest. First, this video will introduce the concept of RNA interference and explain how it causes targeted gene knockdown. Then, we will demonstrate a protocol for using RNAi in C. elegans, which includes preparation of the bacteria and RNAi worm plates, culturing of the worms, and how to assess the effects of RNAi on the worms. RNAi is frequently used to perform reverse genetic screens in order to reveal which genes are important to carry out specific biological processes. Furthermore, automated reverse genetic screens allow for the efficient knockdown and analysis of a large collection of genes. Lastly, RNAi is often used to study the development of C. elegans. Since its discovery, scientists have used RNAi to make tremendous progress on the understanding of many biological phenomena.

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