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Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a object

Electric Fields

JoVE 10322

Source: Yong P. Chen, PhD, Department of Physics & Astronomy, College of Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN

An electric field is generated by a charged object (referred to as the source charge) in the space around it, and represents the ability to exert electric force on another charged object (referred to as the test charge). Represented by a vector at any given point in the space, the electric field is the electrical force per unit test charge placed at that point (the force on an arbitrary charge would be the charge times the electric field). The electric field is fundamental to electricity and effects of charges, and it is also closely related to other important quantities such as electrical voltage. This experiment will use electrified powders in an oil that line up with electric fields produced by charged electrodes to visualize the electric field lines. This experiment will also demonstrate how an electric field can induce charges and how charges respond to the electric field by observing the effect of a charged rod on a nearby soda can.


 Physics II

Adapting the Electrospinning Process to Provide Three Unique Environments for a Tri-layered In Vitro Model of the Airway Wall

1Division of Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering, University of Nottingham, 2Laboratory of Biophysics and Surface Analysis, School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, 3Division of Immunology and Allergy, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, 4Division of Respiratory Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Nottingham, 5NIHR Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit, University of Leicester, 6School of Sport, Exercise, and Health Sciences, Loughborough University

JoVE 52986


 Bioengineering

Cortical Actin Flow in T Cells Quantified by Spatio-temporal Image Correlation Spectroscopy of Structured Illumination Microscopy Data

1Department of Physics and Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics, King's College London, 2Academic Department of Rheumatology, Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology of Inflammation, Division of Immunology, Infection and Inflammatory Disease, King's College London, 3ARC Centre for Advanced Molecular Imaging, Australian Centre for NanoMedicine, University of New South Wales Australia, 4Departments of Chemistry and Physic, McGill University

JoVE 53749


 Immunology and Infection

Bioelectric Analyses of an Osseointegrated Intelligent Implant Design System for Amputees

1Department of Veteran Affairs, 2Department of Bioengineering, University of Utah, 3Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute , University of Utah, 4Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Utah, 5Department of Orthopaedics, University of Utah

JoVE 1237


 Biology

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Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

JoVE 10022

Source: Laboratories of Margaret Workman and Kimberly Frye - Depaul University

The United States consumes a large amount of energy – the current rate is around 97.5 quadrillion BTUs annually. The vast majority (90%) of this energy comes from non-renewable fuel sources. This energy is used for electricity (39%), transportation (28%), industry (22%), and residential/commercial use (11%). As the world has a limited supply of these non-renewable sources, the United States (among others) is expanding the use of renewable energy sources to meet future energy needs. One of these sources is hydrogen. Hydrogen is considered a potential renewable fuel source, because it meets many important criteria: it’s available domestically, it has few harmful pollutants, it’s energy efficient, and it’s easy to harness. While hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe, it is only found in compound form on Earth. For example, it is combined with oxygen in water as H2O. To be useful as a fuel, it needs to be in the form of H2 gas. Therefore, if hydrogen is to be used as a fuel for cars or other electronics, H2 needs to be made first. Thusly, hydrogen is often called an “energy carrier” rather than a “fuel.”

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Engineering 3D Cellularized Collagen Gels for Vascular Tissue Regeneration

1Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Department Min-Met-Materials Eng & CHU de Québec Research Center, Canada Research Chair I for the Innovation in Surgery, Laval University, 2NSERC CREATE Program for Regenerative Medicine (NCPRM), Laval University, 3Department Electronics, Information and Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, 4Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, 5National Institute for Nanotechnology, National Research Council (Canada), 6Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, University of Western Ontario

JoVE 52812


 Bioengineering

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Friction

JoVE 10324

Source: Nicholas Timmons, Asantha Cooray, PhD, Department of Physics & Astronomy, School of Physical Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA

The goal of this experiment is to examine the physical nature of the two types of friction (i.e., static and kinetic). The procedure will include measuring the coefficients of friction for objects sliding horizontally as well as down an inclined plane. Friction is not completely understood, but it is experimentally determined to be proportional to the normal force exerted on an object. If a microscope zooms in on two surfaces that are in contact, it would reveal that their surfaces are very rough on a small scale. This prevents the surfaces from easily sliding past one another. Combining the effect of rough surfaces with the electric forces between the atoms in the materials may account for the frictional force. There are two types of friction. Static friction is present when an object is not moving and some force is required to get that object in motion. Kinetic friction is present when an object is already moving but slows down due to the friction between the sliding surfaces.


 Physics I

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Studying Soft-matter and Biological Systems over a Wide Length-scale from Nanometer and Micrometer Sizes at the Small-angle Neutron Diffractometer KWS-2

1Jülich Centre for Neutron Science Outstation at MLZ, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 2Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, 3Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS-1 & Institute of Complex Systems ICS-1, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 4Central Institute of Engineering, Electronics and Analytics — Electronic Systems (ZEA-2), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 5Central Institute of Engineering, Electronics and Analytics — Engineering and Technology (ZEA-1), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH

JoVE 54639


 Bioengineering

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The Knob Supination Task: A Semi-automated Method for Assessing Forelimb Function in Rats

1Burke Medical Research Institute, 2Texas Biomedical Center, The University of Texas at Dallas, 3Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science, The University of Texas at Dallas, 4Brain and Mind Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medical College, 5Departments of Neurology and Pediatrics, Weill Cornell Medical College

JoVE 56341


 Behavior

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Large-Scale Production of Cardiomyocytes from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Using a Highly Reproducible Small Molecule-Based Differentiation Protocol

1Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, 2Developmental and Stem Cell Biology Division, Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute, 3St. Vincent´s Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, 4School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, 5Department of Developmental Biology, University of Science and Culture, 6Heart Centre for Children, The Children´s Hospital at Westmead, 7Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, 8Department of Developmental Biology, University of Science and Culture, Tehran, Iran

JoVE 54276


 Developmental Biology

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Basic Life Support: Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Defibrillation

JoVE 10199

Source: Julianna Jung, MD, FACEP, Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Maryland, USA

High-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the single most important determinant of intact survival in cardiac arrest, and it is critical that all healthcare workers are able to perform this lifesaving technique effectively. Despite the conceptual simplicity of CPR, the reality is that many providers perform it incorrectly, resulting in suboptimal survival outcomes for their patients. This video looks at the essential elements of high-quality CPR, discusses the physiologic basis for each step, and describes how to optimize them in order to enhance survival outcomes. Appropriate prioritization of interventions in cardiac arrest and methods for optimizing resuscitation performance are covered as well.


 Emergency Medicine and Critical Care

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Measurement of Greenhouse Gas Flux from Agricultural Soils Using Static Chambers

1Office of Sustainability, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2Department of Soil Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3Department of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 4Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 5USDA-ARS Dairy Forage Research Center, 6USDA-ARS Pasture Systems Watershed Management Research Unit

JoVE 52110


 Environment

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Enthalpy

JoVE 10344

Source: Ketron Mitchell-Wynne, PhD, Asantha Cooray, PhD, Department of Physics & Astronomy, School of Physical Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA

When a pot of water is placed on a hot stove, heat is said to "flow" from the stove to the water. When two or more objects are placed into thermal contact with each other, heat spontaneously flows from the hotter objects to the colder ones, or in the direction that tends to equalize the temperature between the objects. For example, when ice cubes are put in a cup of room-temperature water, heat from the water flows to the ice cubes and they begin to melt. Often, the term "heat" is used inconsistently, usually to simply refer to the temperature of something. In the context of thermodynamics, heat, like work, is defined as a transfer of energy. Heat is energy transferred from one object to another because of a difference in temperature. Furthermore, the total energy of any isolated thermodynamic system is constant-that is, energy can be transferred to and from different objects within the system and can be transformed to different types of energy, but energy cannot be created or destroyed. This is the first law of thermodynamics. It is very similar to the conservation of energy law discussed in another video, but in the


 Physics I

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A Combined 3D Tissue Engineered In Vitro/In Silico Lung Tumor Model for Predicting Drug Effectiveness in Specific Mutational Backgrounds

1Department of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine (TERM), University Hospital Wuerzburg, 2Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University Hospital Wuerzburg, 3Department of Bioinformatics, University Wuerzburg, 4Translational Center Wuerzburg, Fraunhofer Institute Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology IGB

JoVE 53885


 Bioengineering

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