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Subcutaneous Tissue: Loose connective tissue lying under the Dermis, which binds Skin loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of Adipocytes, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.

A Technique for Subcutaneous Abdominal Adipose Tissue Biopsy via a Non-diathermy Method

1FAME Laboratory, Department of Exercise Science, University of Thessaly, 2Institute of Sport, Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, 3Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, 4School of Physical Education and Exercise Science, University of Thessaly

JoVE 55593


 Medicine

Renal Capsule Xenografting and Subcutaneous Pellet Implantation for the Evaluation of Prostate Carcinogenesis and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

1Department of Urology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2Medical Scientist (MD/PhD) Training Program, University of Rochester School of Medicine & Dentistry, 3Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison

JoVE 50574


 Medicine

Benefits of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in an Asynchronous Heart Failure Model Induced by Left Bundle Branch Ablation and Rapid Pacing

1Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, 2Department of Echocardiography, Shanghai Institute of Medical imaging, Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, 3Department of Cardiac surgery, Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University

JoVE 56439


 Biology

Complete and Partial Aortic Occlusion for the Treatment of Hemorrhagic Shock in Swine

1Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, 2Hays Innovations

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58284


 JoVE In-Press

Tube Thoracostomy

JoVE 10283

Source: Rachel Liu, BAO, MBBCh, Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

Tube thoracostomy (chest tube placement) is a procedure during which a hollow tube is inserted into the thoracic cavity for drainage of fluid or air. Emergency chest tube insertion is performed for definitive treatment of tension pneumothorax, traumatic hemothorax, large-volume pleural effusions, and empyemas. Irrespective of the cause of air and fluid accumulation in the pleural space, the drainage relieves lung compression and enables lung re-expansion. In pneumothorax, air accumulation in the pleural cavity separates pleural layers, which prevents lung expansion during the respiration. Abnormal fluid accumulation, such as in case of hemothorax or empyema, causes separation of the visceral pleura that adheres to lung tissue from the parietal pleura that forms the lining of the chest cavity. The uncoupling of the pleural layers leads to disconnection of chest wall movement from the lung movement, causing respiratory distress. In addition, excessive pressure from overwhelming amounts of air or fluid in the pleura may push the mediastinum away from the central chest, causing inability of blood to return to the heart. In the trauma setting, a chest tube may


 Emergency Medicine and Critical Care

Intra-articular Shoulder Injection for Reduction Following Shoulder Dislocation

JoVE 10282

Source: Rachel Liu, BAO, MBBCh, Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

The anterior shoulder dislocation is one of the most common joint dislocations seen in emergency settings. In anterior shoulder dislocation, the humeral head is displaced out of the glenohumeral joint in front of the scapular glenoid, resulting in a loss of the articulation between the arm and the rest of the shoulder. This can be caused by a fall onto an abducted, extended, and externally rotated arm, such as in a bicycle or running accident. Sometimes anterior shoulder dislocation can be due to a minor trauma or even result from rolling over in bed with an externally rotated and stretched overhead arm. Anterior shoulder dislocation is a painful injury. Patients cannot actively abduct, adduct or internally rotate the shoulder. Reduction of the shoulder is the best form of analgesia and, of course, is necessary to restore arm function. While it is current practice for patients to undergo procedural sedation during the shoulder reduction procedure, the sedatives have serious side effects (cardiac and respiratory depression), and require long stays in the emergency department (ED), dedicated nursing staff, multiple radiographs, and consulting services. Intra-art


 Emergency Medicine and Critical Care

Synthesis of Thermogelling Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-graft-chondroitin Sulfate Composites with Alginate Microparticles for Tissue Engineering

1Department of Chemical Engineering, Rowan University, 2Department of Biological Sciences, Rowan University, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Drexel University

JoVE 53704


 Bioengineering

The Arteriovenous (AV) Loop in a Small Animal Model to Study Angiogenesis and Vascularized Tissue Engineering

1Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery and Laboratory for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, University Hospital of Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), 2Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute for Postgraduate Studies, Baghdad University, 3Department of Plastic, Hand and Microsurgery, Sana Klinikum Hof GmbH

JoVE 54676


 Bioengineering

Performing and Processing FNA of Anterior Fat Pad for Amyloid

1Department of Pathology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 2Current Address: Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine Detroit Medical Center, 3Department of Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 4Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, 5Division of Neoplastic Diseases and Related Disorders, Medical College of Wisconsin

JoVE 1747


 Medicine

Gene Transfection toward Spheroid Cells on Micropatterned Culture Plates for Genetically-modified Cell Transplantation

1Graduate School of Medicine, Laboratory of Clinical Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, 2Graduate School of Engineering, Department of Materials Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 3Graduate School of Engineering, Department of Bioengineering, The University of Tokyo

JoVE 52384


 Bioengineering

Human Vastus Lateralis Skeletal Muscle Biopsy Using the Weil-Blakesley Conchotome

1Academic Geriatric Medicine, University of Southampton, University Hospital Southampton, 2National Institute for Health Research Southampton Biomedical Research Center, University of Southampton and University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, 3MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, 4National Institute for Health Research Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, University of Oxford, 5National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care, 6Newcastle University Institute of Ageing and Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University

JoVE 53075


 Medicine

Preparing and Administering Intramuscular Injections

JoVE 10261

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Intramuscular (IM) injections deposit medications deep into the muscle tissue. Since muscle fibers are well perfused, this route of administration provides quick uptake of the medication and allows for the administration of relatively large volumes. Skeletal muscles have fewer pain-sensing nerves than subcutaneous tissue, which allows for the less painful administration of irritating drugs (e.g., chlorpromazine, an anti-psychotic). IM injections are recommended for patients unable to take oral medications and for uncooperative patients. Some examples of medications that are commonly delivered by IM injections include antibiotics, hormones, and vaccinations. As in any other route of administration, the nurse must consider if the medication is appropriate, given the patient's medical conditions, allergies, and current clinical status. In addition, specifically for IM injections, it is important to assess the patient's muscle mass to determine the appropriate needle size. Also, if the patient has already received this injection, it is necessary to verify the injection site that was previously used and to ensure that the previous dose did not result in any adverse


 Nursing Skills

An Anatomical Study of Nerves at Risk During Minimally Invasive Hallux Valgus Surgery

1Laboratory of Arthroscopic and Surgical Anatomy. Department of Pathology and Experimental Therapeutics (Human Anatomy and Embryology Unit), University of Barcelona, 2Health Sciences Faculty of Manresa, University of Vic-Central University of Catalunya, 3Groupe de Recherche et d'Etude en Chirurgie Mini-Invasive du Pied, GRECMIP, 4Foot and Ankle Unit, Hospital Quirón Barcelona, 5Foot and Ankle Unit, Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Royal London Hospital, Barts Health NHS Trust, 6Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Foot and Ankle Unit, University of Minnesota

JoVE 56232


 Medicine

A Mouse Fetal Skin Model of Scarless Wound Repair

1Hagey Laboratory for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, 2Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, 3Department of Surgery, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i, 4University of Central Florida College of Medicine

JoVE 52297


 Medicine

A Model of Free Tissue Transfer: The Rat Epigastric Free Flap

1Anatomy Department, NOVA Medical School, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 2Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department and Burn Unit, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central - Hospital de São José, 3UCIBIO, Life Sciences Department, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 4CEDOC, NOVA Medical School, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 5Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, LIBPhys, 6Pathology Department, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central – Hospital de São José

JoVE 55281


 Medicine

Biodegradable Magnesium Stent Treatment of Saccular Aneurysms in a Rat Model - Introduction of the Surgical Technique

1Department of Neurosurgery, Kantonsspital Aarau, 2Neuro Lab, Research Group for Experimental Neurosurgery and Neurocritical Care, Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital and University of Bern, 3Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Kantonsspital Aarau

JoVE 56359


 Neuroscience

Automated Measurement of Pulmonary Emphysema and Small Airway Remodeling in Cigarette Smoke-exposed Mice

1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital - Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Cambridge - Addenbrooke's Hospital, 3Lung Transplant Program, Brigham and Women's Hospital - Harvard Medical School, 4COPD and IPF Programs, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute

JoVE 52236


 Medicine

Pericardiocentesis

JoVE 10236

Source: Rachel Liu, BAO, MBBCh, Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

The heart lies within the pericardium, a relatively inelastic fibrous sac. The pericardium has some compliance to stretch when fluid is slowly introduced into the pericardial space. However, rapid accumulation overwhelms pericardial ability to accommodate extra fluid. Once a critical volume is reached, intrapericardial pressure increases dramatically, compressing the right ventricle and eventually impeding the volume that enters the left ventricle. When these chambers cannot fill in diastole, stroke volume and cardiac output are diminished, leading to cardiac tamponade, a life-threatening compression of the cardiac chambers by a pericardial effusion. Unless the pressure is relieved by aspiration of pericardial fluid (pericardiocentesis), cardiac arrest is imminent. Cardiac tamponadeis a critical emergency that can carry high morbidity and mortality. Patients may present in extremis, without much time to make the diagnosis and perform life-saving treatments. Causes of this condition are broken into traumatic and non-traumatic categories, with different treatment algorithms. Stab and gunshot wounds are the primary cause of traumatic tamponade, but it may occur from blunt trauma associated with


 Emergency Medicine and Critical Care

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