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Subcutaneous Tissue: Loose connective tissue lying under the Dermis, which binds Skin loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of Adipocytes, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.

Preparing and Administering Subcutaneous Medications

JoVE 10234

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Subcutaneous medication administration is a parenteral approach to administer small amounts of medication (less than 2 mL) into the layer of tissue just below the skin. Common medications administered via the subcutaneous route include anticoagulant medications, such as heparin or enoxaparin; epinephrine administered for allergic reactions; insulin; and some immunizations. Subcutaneous injection preparations are commonly provided in vials or ampules for withdrawal into a subcutaneous syringe. Subcutaneous needles have a shorter length and smaller diameter than syringes used for intramuscular injections, are typically less than 5/8th of an inch, and are 26 gauge or smaller. Medication absorption and onset is slower than for intravenous routes, with some absorption rates lasting 24 h or longer. This approach is selected for many medications that may be denatured or deactivated if given via the oral route, given the acidity of the gastrointestinal tract. Subcutaneous injection preparations are commonly provided in vials or ampules for withdrawal into a subcutaneous syringe. The nurse should determine the appropriate medication dose according to


 Essentials of Nursing Skills

Renal Capsule Xenografting and Subcutaneous Pellet Implantation for the Evaluation of Prostate Carcinogenesis and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

1Department of Urology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2Medical Scientist (MD/PhD) Training Program, University of Rochester School of Medicine & Dentistry, 3Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison

JoVE 50574


 Medicine

Compound Administration I

JoVE 10198

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

As many research protocols require that a substance be injected into an animal, the route of delivery and the amount of the substance must be accurately determined. There are several routes of administration available in the mouse and rat. Which route to use is determined by several factors of the substance to be injected: the pH of the solution, the volume required for the desired dosage, and the viscosity of the solution. Severe tissue damage can occur if a substance is administered incorrectly. This video looks at the various restraint methods and technical details for the most commonly used injection routes.


 Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Skeletal Muscle Disease

1Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, 2Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, 4Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, 5Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University, 6Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University

JoVE 52352


 Medicine

Benefits of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in an Asynchronous Heart Failure Model Induced by Left Bundle Branch Ablation and Rapid Pacing

1Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, 2Department of Echocardiography, Shanghai Institute of Medical imaging, Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, 3Department of Cardiac surgery, Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56439


 JoVE In-Press

Quantification of Strain in a Porcine Model of Skin Expansion Using Multi-View Stereo and Isogeometric Kinematics

1Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, 2Division of Plastic Surgery, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 3Mechanical Engineering, Bioengineering, Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stanford University

JoVE 55052


 Bioengineering

Using In Vivo and Tissue and Cell Explant Approaches to Study the Morphogenesis and Pathogenesis of the Embryonic and Perinatal Aorta

1Yale Cardiovascular Research Center, Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 2Department of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine, 3Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56039


 JoVE In-Press

Tube Thoracostomy

JoVE 10283

Source: Rachel Liu, BAO, MBBCh, Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

Tube thoracostomy (chest tube placement) is a procedure during which a hollow tube is inserted into the thoracic cavity for drainage of fluid or air. Emergency chest tube insertion is performed for definitive treatment of tension pneumothorax, traumatic hemothorax, large-volume pleural effusions, and empyemas. Irrespective of the cause of air and fluid accumulation in the pleural space, the drainage relieves lung compression and enables lung re-expansion. In pneumothorax, air accumulation in the pleural cavity separates pleural layers, which prevents lung expansion during the respiration. Abnormal fluid accumulation, such as in case of hemothorax or empyema, causes separation of the visceral pleura that adheres to lung tissue from the parietal pleura that forms the lining of the chest cavity. The uncoupling of the pleural layers leads to disconnection of chest wall movement from the lung movement, causing respiratory distress. In addition, excessive pressure from overwhelming amounts of air or fluid in the pleura may push the mediastinum away from the central chest, causing inability of blood to return to the heart. In the trauma setting, a chest tube may


 Essentials of Emergency Medicine and Critical Care

Intra-articular Shoulder Injection for Reduction Following Shoulder Dislocation

JoVE 10282

Source: Rachel Liu, BAO, MBBCh, Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

The anterior shoulder dislocation is one of the most common joint dislocations seen in emergency settings. In anterior shoulder dislocation, the humeral head is displaced out of the glenohumeral joint in front of the scapular glenoid, resulting in a loss of the articulation between the arm and the rest of the shoulder. This can be caused by a fall onto an abducted, extended, and externally rotated arm, such as in a bicycle or running accident. Sometimes anterior shoulder dislocation can be due to a minor trauma or even result from rolling over in bed with an externally rotated and stretched overhead arm. Anterior shoulder dislocation is a painful injury. Patients cannot actively abduct, adduct or internally rotate the shoulder. Reduction of the shoulder is the best form of analgesia and, of course, is necessary to restore arm function. While it is current practice for patients to undergo procedural sedation during the shoulder reduction procedure, the sedatives have serious side effects (cardiac and respiratory depression), and require long stays in the emergency department (ED), dedicated nursing staff, multiple radiographs, and consulting services. Intra-art


 Essentials of Emergency Medicine and Critical Care

Synthesis of Thermogelling Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-graft-chondroitin Sulfate Composites with Alginate Microparticles for Tissue Engineering

1Department of Chemical Engineering, Rowan University, 2Department of Biological Sciences, Rowan University, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Drexel University

JoVE 53704


 Bioengineering

Operating Procedures of the Electrochemotherapy for Treatment of Tumor in Dogs and Cats

1Clinic for Surgery and Small Animals, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, 2Department of Experimental Oncology, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Primorska, 4IPBS (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale), CNRS, 5IPBS (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale), Université de Toulouse

JoVE 54760


 Cancer Research

The Arteriovenous (AV) Loop in a Small Animal Model to Study Angiogenesis and Vascularized Tissue Engineering

1Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery and Laboratory for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, University Hospital of Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), 2Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute for Postgraduate Studies, Baghdad University, 3Department of Plastic, Hand and Microsurgery, Sana Klinikum Hof GmbH

JoVE 54676


 Bioengineering

Performing and Processing FNA of Anterior Fat Pad for Amyloid

1Department of Pathology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 2Current Address: Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine Detroit Medical Center, 3Department of Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 4Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, 5Division of Neoplastic Diseases and Related Disorders, Medical College of Wisconsin

JoVE 1747


 Medicine

Custom-designed Laser-based Heating Apparatus for Triggered Release of Cisplatin from Thermosensitive Liposomes with Magnetic Resonance Image Guidance

1Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 3Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 4Institute of Biomaterials & Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, 5Techna Institute and Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Center, University Health Network, 6STTARR Innovation Center, University Health Network, 7Ontario Cancer Institute, University Health Network

JoVE 53055


 Bioengineering

Surgical Technique for the Implantation of Tissue Engineered Vascular Grafts and Subsequent In Vivo Monitoring

1Department of Physiology & Bio-Physics, State University of New York Buffalo School of Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, State University of New York Buffalo School of Medicine, 3Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, State University of New York Buffalo School of Engineering

JoVE 52354


 Bioengineering

Non-restraining EEG Radiotelemetry: Epidural and Deep Intracerebral Stereotaxic EEG Electrode Placement

1Department of Neuropsychopharmacology, Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (Bundesinstitut für Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte, BfArM), 2Molecular and Cellular Cognition Lab, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen, DZNE)

JoVE 54216


 Neuroscience

3D Ultrasound Imaging: Fast and Cost-Effective Morphometry of Musculoskeletal Tissue

1Laboratory for Myology, Department of Human Movement Sciences, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, 2Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, VU University Medical Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Movement Sciences

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 55943


 JoVE In-Press

Gene Transfection toward Spheroid Cells on Micropatterned Culture Plates for Genetically-modified Cell Transplantation

1Graduate School of Medicine, Laboratory of Clinical Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, 2Graduate School of Engineering, Department of Materials Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 3Graduate School of Engineering, Department of Bioengineering, The University of Tokyo

JoVE 52384


 Bioengineering

Spatial Measurements of Perfusion, Interstitial Fluid Pressure and Liposomes Accumulation in Solid Tumors

1Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 3STTARR Innovation Centre, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 4Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, 5Techna Institute, University Health Network, 6Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre

JoVE 54226


 Medicine

Diagnostic Necropsy and Tissue Harvest

JoVE 10294

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

Many animal experiments rely on final data collection time points that are gathered from the harvesting and testing of organs and tissues. The use of appropriate methods for the collection of organs and tissues can impact the quality of the samples and the analysis of the data that is gleaned for the testing of the tissues. The method of euthanasia of the animal can also impact the quality of the samples. This manuscript will outline proper necropsy techniques for rats.


 Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Gene Regulation and Targeted Therapy in Gastric Cancer Peritoneal Metastasis: Radiological Findings from Dual Energy CT and PET/CT

1Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 3GE Healthcare China, 4Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56526


 JoVE In-Press

Generation of Prostate Cancer Patient Derived Xenograft Models from Circulating Tumor Cells

1Department of Pathology, Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 2Department of Hematology/Oncology, Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 3Molecular Biology Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center

JoVE 53182


 Medicine

Preparing and Administering Intramuscular Injections

JoVE 10261

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Intramuscular (IM) injections deposit medications deep into the muscle tissue. Since muscle fibers are well perfused, this route of administration provides quick uptake of the medication and allows for the administration of relatively large volumes. Skeletal muscles have fewer pain-sensing nerves than subcutaneous tissue, which allows for the less painful administration of irritating drugs (e.g., chlorpromazine, an anti-psychotic). IM injections are recommended for patients unable to take oral medications and for uncooperative patients. Some examples of medications that are commonly delivered by IM injections include antibiotics, hormones, and vaccinations. As in any other route of administration, the nurse must consider if the medication is appropriate, given the patient's medical conditions, allergies, and current clinical status. In addition, specifically for IM injections, it is important to assess the patient's muscle mass to determine the appropriate needle size. Also, if the patient has already received this injection, it is necessary to verify the injection site that was previously used and to ensure that the previous dose did not result in any adverse


 Essentials of Nursing Skills

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