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Tachycardia, Ventricular: An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm usually in excess of 150 beats per minute. It is generated within the ventricle below the Bundle of his, either as autonomic impulse formation or reentrant impulse conduction. Depending on the etiology, onset of ventricular tachycardia can be paroxysmal (sudden) or nonparoxysmal, its wide Qrs complexes can be uniform or polymorphic, and the ventricular beating may be independent of the atrial beating (Av dissociation).

Benefits of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in an Asynchronous Heart Failure Model Induced by Left Bundle Branch Ablation and Rapid Pacing

1Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, 2Department of Echocardiography, Shanghai Institute of Medical imaging, Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, 3Department of Cardiac surgery, Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University

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JoVE 56439


 JoVE In-Press

Basic Life Support: Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Defibrillation

JoVE 10199

Source: Julianna Jung, MD, FACEP, Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Maryland, USA

High-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the single most important determinant of intact survival in cardiac arrest, and it is critical that all healthcare workers are able to perform this lifesaving technique effectively. Despite the conceptual simplicity of CPR, the reality is that many providers perform it incorrectly, resulting in suboptimal survival outcomes for their patients. This video looks at the essential elements of high-quality CPR, discusses the physiologic basis for each step, and describes how to optimize them in order to enhance survival outcomes. Appropriate prioritization of interventions in cardiac arrest and methods for optimizing resuscitation performance are covered as well.


 Emergency Medicine and Critical Care

Pericardiocentesis

JoVE 10236

Source: Rachel Liu, BAO, MBBCh, Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

The heart lies within the pericardium, a relatively inelastic fibrous sac. The pericardium has some compliance to stretch when fluid is slowly introduced into the pericardial space. However, rapid accumulation overwhelms pericardial ability to accommodate extra fluid. Once a critical volume is reached, intrapericardial pressure increases dramatically, compressing the right ventricle and eventually impeding the volume that enters the left ventricle. When these chambers cannot fill in diastole, stroke volume and cardiac output are diminished, leading to cardiac tamponade, a life-threatening compression of the cardiac chambers by a pericardial effusion. Unless the pressure is relieved by aspiration of pericardial fluid (pericardiocentesis), cardiac arrest is imminent. Cardiac tamponadeis a critical emergency that can carry high morbidity and mortality. Patients may present in extremis, without much time to make the diagnosis and perform life-saving treatments. Causes of this condition are broken into traumatic and non-traumatic categories, with different treatment algorithms. Stab and gunshot wounds are the primary cause of traumatic tamponade, but it may occur from blunt trauma associated with


 Emergency Medicine and Critical Care

Basic Life Support Part II: Airway/Breathing and Continued Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

JoVE 10232

Source: Julianna Jung, MD, FACEP, Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Maryland, USA

High-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation are the most important interventions for patients with cardiac arrest, and should be the first steps that rescuers perform. This is reflected in the American Heart Association's new "CAB" mnemonic. While rescuers were once taught the "ABCs" of cardiac arrest, they now learn "CAB" - circulation first, followed by airway and breathing. Only once CPR is underway (and defibrillation has been performed, if a defibrillator is available) do we consider providing respiratory support. This video will describe the correct technique for providing respiratory support to a patient in cardiac arrest, and how to continue basic life support over the period of time until help arrives. This video assumes that all the steps described in "Basic Life Support Part I: Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Defibrillation" have already been completed. This video does NOT depict the initial steps taken when arriving at the scene of a cardiac arrest.


 Emergency Medicine and Critical Care

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Shunt Surgery, Right Heart Catheterization, and Vascular Morphometry in a Rat Model for Flow-induced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

1Center for Congenital Heart Diseases, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Beatrix Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 2Research and Development Facility, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen

JoVE 55065


 Medicine

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Primary Outcome Assessment in a Pig Model of Acute Myocardial Infarction

1Department of Experimental Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 2Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3Department of Clinical Chemistry and Hematology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 4Interuniversity Cardiology Institutes of the Netherlands (ICIN)

JoVE 54021


 Medicine

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High Efficiency Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Cardiomyocytes and Characterization by Flow Cytometry

1Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Wisconsin, 2Stanford Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, 3Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 4Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Consortium, LKS Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong University, 5Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 6Cardiovascular Research Center, Biotechnology and Bioengineering Center, Medical College of Wisconsin

JoVE 52010


 Biology

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Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension and Assessment of Right Ventricular Function in the Piglet

1Surgical Research Lab, Marie Lannelongue Hospital, 2Department of Pathology, Marie Lannelongue Hospital, 3Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Marie Lannelongue Hospital, 4Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital of Rennes, 5INSERM U999 Paris-Sud University

JoVE 53133


 Medicine

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Local Field Fluorescence Microscopy: Imaging Cellular Signals in Intact Hearts

1School of Natural Sciences, University of California, Merced, 2Centro de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares, Universidad de la Plata and Conicet, 3Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios, 4Department of Physiology, Midwestern University, 5School of Engineering, University of California, Merced

JoVE 55202


 Biology

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Quantification of Global Diastolic Function by Kinematic Modeling-based Analysis of Transmitral Flow via the Parametrized Diastolic Filling Formalism

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, 2Department of Physics, Washington University in St. Louis, 3Division of Biology and Biomedical Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, 4Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, Washington University in St. Louis, 5Cardiovascular Biophysics Lab, Washington University in St. Louis

JoVE 51471


 Bioengineering

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