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Taq Polymerase: A heat stable Dna-directed dna polymerase from the bacteria Thermus aquaticus. It is widely used for the amplification of genes through the process of Polymerase chain reaction. EC 2.7.7.-.

Enhanced Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing for Assessment of DNA Methylation at Base Pair Resolution

1Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 2Institute for Computational Biomedicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 3Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Cornell Medical College, 4Department of Pathology, University of Michigan

JoVE 52246


 Biology

Bidirectional Retroviral Integration Site PCR Methodology and Quantitative Data Analysis Workflow

1UCLA AIDS Institute, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), 2Department of Microbiology, Immunology, & Molecular Genetics, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), 3Departments of Biomathematics and Mathematics, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), 4Personalized Genomic Medicine Research Center, Division of Strategic Research Groups, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 5Department of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), 6Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University (OSU)

JoVE 55812


 Genetics

Detecting Environmental Microorganisms with the Polymerase Chain Reaction and Gel Electrophoresis

JoVE 10081

Source: Laboratories of Dr. Ian Pepper and Dr. Charles Gerba - Arizona University
Demonstrating Author: Bradley Schmitz

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used to detect microorganisms that are present in soil, water, and atmospheric environments. By amplifying specific sections of DNA, PCR can facilitate the detection and identification of target microorganisms down to the species, strain, and serovar/pathovar level. The technique can also be utilized to characterize entire communities of microorganisms in samples. The culturing of microorganisms in the laboratory using specialized growth media is a long-established technique and remains in use for the detection of microorganisms in environmental samples. Many microbes in the natural environment, while alive, maintain low levels of metabolic activity and/or doubling times and are thus referred to as viable but non-culturable (VBNC) organisms. The use of culture-based techniques alone cannot detect these microbes and, therefore, does not provide a thorough assessment of microbial populations in samples. The use of PCR allows for the detection of culturable microbes, VBNC organisms, and those that are no longer alive or active, as the amplification of genetic sequences does not generally require the pre-enrichment of microorga


 Essentials of Environmental Microbiology

Multiplex PCR Assay for Typing of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome Mec Types I to V in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

1Centre for Antimicrobial Resistance, Alberta Health Services / Calgary Laboratory Services / University of Calgary, 2Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of Calgary, 3Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, University of Calgary, 4Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, 5The Calvin, Phoebe and Joan Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases, University of Calgary

JoVE 50779


 Immunology and Infection

Pairwise Growth Competition Assay for Determining the Replication Fitness of Human Immunodeficiency Viruses

1Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, 2Departments of Medicine and Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, 3U.S Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 4Henry M. Jackson Foundation

JoVE 52610


 Immunology and Infection

Genetic Engineering of an Unconventional Yeast for Renewable Biofuel and Biochemical Production

1Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 2NUS Synthetic Biology for Clinical and Technological Innovation (SynCTI), Life Sciences Institute, National University of Singapore, 3Food Science and Chemical Engineering, Singapore Institute of Technology

JoVE 54371


 Genetics

An Affordable HIV-1 Drug Resistance Monitoring Method for Resource Limited Settings

1Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, 2Unit D11, Jembi Health Systems, 3Academic Medical Center, Department of Global Health, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD), University of Amsterdam, 4Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Centre for AIDS Research, Stanford Medical School

JoVE 51242


 Medicine

Measurement of In Vitro Integration Activity of HIV-1 Preintegration Complexes

1Center for AIDS Health Disparities Research, Meharry Medical College, 2Department of Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, Meharry Medical College, 3School of Graduate Studies and Research, Meharry Medical College, 4Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Meharry Medical College, 5Tennessee Center for AIDS Research (TN-CFAR), Meharry Medical College

JoVE 54581


 Immunology and Infection

Testing For Genetically Modified Foods

JoVE 10044

Source: Laboratories of Margaret Workman and Kimberly Frye - Depaul University

Genetic modification of foods has been a controversial issue due to debated concerns over health and environmental safety. This experiment demonstrates technical understanding of how food DNA is genetically identified, allowing for educated decision making about the safety and potential dangers of using genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food supplies. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is used to amplify food DNA to test for the presence of genetically modified DNA in food products. Presence of specific DNA bands is detected by using gel electrophoresis to pull extracted food DNA through a 3% agarose gel, a concentration dense enough to separate the bands of DNA containing the genetically modified DNA. Several controls are used in the electrophoresis procedure to ensure DNA is successfully extracted from test foods (plant primer), and to provide known examples of both genetically modified DNA (purchased genetically modified DNA) and non-genetically modified DNA (purchased certified non-GMO food control).


 Essentials of Environmental Science

Methods to Discover Alternative Promoter Usage and Transcriptional Regulation of Murine Bcrp1

1Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 2Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, 3Baltimore VA Medical Center, 4Membrane Transport and Biopharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kanazawa University, 5Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Science, University of Pittsburgh, 6Magee Women's Research Institute, 7Obstetrics, Gynecology, Perinatal Research Branch (NICHD), Wayne State University School of Medicine, 8Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 9Pathology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 10Pharmacology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 11Experimental Therapeutics, University of Maryland School of Medicine

JoVE 53827


 Biology

Analyzing Beneficial Effects of Nutritional Supplements on Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Functions During Experimental Colitis

1Department of Molecular Biomedicine, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, 2Department of Physiology, Biophysics and Neurosciences, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, 3Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute

JoVE 55095


 Medicine

Retroviral Scanning: Mapping MLV Integration Sites to Define Cell-specific Regulatory Regions

1Center for Genome Research, Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 2Laboratory of Chromatin and Gene Regulation During Development, Imagine Institute, 3Institute for Biomedical Technologies, CNR, 4Généthon, 5Sorbonne Paris Cité - Université Paris Descartes

JoVE 55919


 Genetics

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