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Taq Polymerase: A heat stable Dna-directed dna polymerase from the bacteria Thermus aquaticus. It is widely used for the amplification of genes through the process of Polymerase chain reaction. EC 2.7.7.-.

Detecting Environmental Microorganisms with the Polymerase Chain Reaction and Gel Electrophoresis

JoVE 10081

Source: Laboratories of Dr. Ian Pepper and Dr. Charles Gerba - Arizona University
Demonstrating Author: Bradley Schmitz

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used to detect microorganisms that are present in soil, water, and atmospheric environments. By amplifying specific sections of DNA, PCR can facilitate the detection and identification of target microorganisms down to the species, strain, and serovar/pathovar level. The technique can also be utilized to characterize entire communities of microorganisms in samples. The culturing of microorganisms in the laboratory using specialized growth media is a long-established technique and remains in use for the detection of microorganisms in environmental samples. Many microbes in the natural environment, while alive, maintain low levels of metabolic activity and/or doubling times and are thus referred to as viable but non-culturable (VBNC) organisms. The use of culture-based techniques alone cannot detect these microbes and, therefore, does not provide a thorough assessment of microbial populations in samples. The use of PCR allows for the detection of culturable microbes, VBNC organisms, and those that are no longer alive or active, as the amplification of genetic sequences does not generally require the pre-enrichment of microorga


 Environmental Microbiology

Multiplex PCR Assay for Typing of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome Mec Types I to V in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

1Centre for Antimicrobial Resistance, Alberta Health Services / Calgary Laboratory Services / University of Calgary, 2Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of Calgary, 3Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, University of Calgary, 4Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, 5The Calvin, Phoebe and Joan Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases, University of Calgary

JoVE 50779


 Immunology and Infection

Pairwise Growth Competition Assay for Determining the Replication Fitness of Human Immunodeficiency Viruses

1Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, 2Departments of Medicine and Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, 3U.S Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 4Henry M. Jackson Foundation

JoVE 52610


 Immunology and Infection

A Method to Study the C924T Polymorphism of the Thromboxane A2 Receptor Gene

1SS Annunziata University Hospital, Unit of Clinical Molecular Biology and Predictive Medicine, University of Chieti, 2Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Chieti, 3Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, University of L'Aquila, 4CNR - Institute of Molecular Genetics, Section of Chieti

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 57289


 JoVE In-Press

An Affordable HIV-1 Drug Resistance Monitoring Method for Resource Limited Settings

1Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, 2Unit D11, Jembi Health Systems, 3Academic Medical Center, Department of Global Health, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD), University of Amsterdam, 4Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Centre for AIDS Research, Stanford Medical School

JoVE 51242


 Medicine

Measurement of In Vitro Integration Activity of HIV-1 Preintegration Complexes

1Center for AIDS Health Disparities Research, Meharry Medical College, 2Department of Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, Meharry Medical College, 3School of Graduate Studies and Research, Meharry Medical College, 4Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Meharry Medical College, 5Tennessee Center for AIDS Research (TN-CFAR), Meharry Medical College

JoVE 54581


 Immunology and Infection

Streamlined Single Cell TCR Isolation and Generation of Retroviral Vectors for In Vitro and In Vivo Expression of Human TCRs

1Department of Pediatrics, Section of Diabetes and Endocrinology, McNair Medical Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, 2Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, 3Center for Human Immunobiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, 4Department of Pediatrics, Section of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital

JoVE 55379


 Immunology and Infection

Microinjection of CRISPR/Cas9 Protein into Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Embryos for Gene Editing

1School of Fisheries, Aquaculture and Aquatic Sciences, Auburn University, 2Department of Animal Wealth Development, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, 3Anatomy and Embryology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, 4Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, 5Life Science Institute, University of Michigan

JoVE 56275


 Genetics

Methods to Discover Alternative Promoter Usage and Transcriptional Regulation of Murine Bcrp1

1Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 2Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, 3Baltimore VA Medical Center, 4Membrane Transport and Biopharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kanazawa University, 5Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Science, University of Pittsburgh, 6Magee Women's Research Institute, 7Obstetrics, Gynecology, Perinatal Research Branch (NICHD), Wayne State University School of Medicine, 8Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 9Pathology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 10Pharmacology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 11Experimental Therapeutics, University of Maryland School of Medicine

JoVE 53827


 Biology

Scalable High Throughput Selection From Phage-displayed Synthetic Antibody Libraries

1The Recombinant Antibody Network, 2The Banting and Best Department of Medical Research, University of Toronto, 3Antibiome Center, University of California, San Francisco at Mission Bay, 4Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Chicago

JoVE 51492


 Immunology and Infection

Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Spermatozoa: Collection, Cryopreservation, and Heterologous In Vitro Fertilization

1Department of Animal Reproduction, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), 2Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery, School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 3Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Murcia, Campus Mare Nostrum, 4Mundomar, Benidorm, 5Veterinary Services, L'Oceanográfic, Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias, Junta de Murs i Vals, s/n, 46013

JoVE 55237


 Developmental Biology

Identifying DNA Mutations in Purified Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells

1Greehey Children's Cancer Research Institute, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, 2Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, 3Department of Pathology, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, 4Department of Microbiology, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, 5Cancer Therapy and Research Center, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio

JoVE 50752


 Immunology and Infection

Detection and Genogrouping of Noroviruses from Children's Stools By Taqman One-step RT-PCR

1Laboratorio de Investigación y Desarrollo (LID), Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, 2Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 3Laboratorio de Diagnostico Molecular, Facultad de Medicina, University of Concepcion,Chile, 4University of California San Diego School of Medicine

JoVE 3232


 Medicine

Competitive Genomic Screens of Barcoded Yeast Libraries

1Banting and Best Department of Medical Research and Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, 2Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, University of Toronto, 3Donnelly Sequencing Centre, University of Toronto, 4Genetics and Molecular Biology Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH, 5Stanford Genome Technology Center, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford University, 6Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto

JoVE 2864


 Biology

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