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Taste Buds: Small sensory organs which contain gustatory receptor cells, basal cells, and supporting cells. Taste buds in humans are found in the epithelia of the tongue, palate, and pharynx. They are innervated by the Chorda tympani nerve (a branch of the facial nerve) and the Glossopharyngeal nerve.

Technique to Collect Fungiform (Taste) Papillae from Human Tongue

1Department of Basic Science and Craniofacial Biology, College of Dentistry, New York University, 2Department of Internal Medicine and Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, 3Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 4School of Dental Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, University of Pennsylvania-School of Medicine, 5Monell Chemical Senses Center, 6Monell Chemical Senses Center

JoVE 2201


 Medicine

Cranial Nerves Exam II (VII-XII)

JoVE 10005

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

The cranial nerve examination follows the mental status evaluation in a neurological exam. However, the examination begins with observations made upon greeting the patient. For example, weakness of the facial muscles (which are innervated by cranial nerve VII) can be readily apparent during the first encounter with the patient. Cranial nerve VII (the facial nerve) also has sensory branches, which innervate the taste buds on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and the medial aspect of the external auditory canal. Therefore, finding ipsilateral taste dysfunction in a patient with facial weakness confirms the involvement of cranial nerve VII. In addition, knowledge of the neuroanatomy helps the clinician to localize the level of the lesion: unilateral weakness of the lower facial muscles suggests a supranuclear lesion on the opposite side, while lesions involving the nuclear or infranuclear portion of the facial nerve manifest with an ipsilateral paralysis of all the facial muscles on the involved side. Cranial nerve VIII (the acoustic nerve) has two divisions: the hearing (cochlear) division and the vestibular division, which innervates the semi


 Physical Examinations III

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Adapting Human Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study Methods to Detect and Characterize Dysphagia in Murine Disease Models

1Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Missouri, 2Department of Communication Science and Disorders, University of Missouri, 3Department of Medicine, University of Missouri

JoVE 52319


 Medicine

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Measuring Physiological Responses of Drosophila Sensory Neurons to Lipid Pheromones Using Live Calcium Imaging

1Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, 2Department of Biological Science, National University of Singapore, 3Bioimaging and Biocomputing Facility, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, 4Histology and Light Microscopy Core, Gladstone Institutes, 5Pacific Biosciences Research Center, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa

JoVE 53392


 Immunology and Infection

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Thinking Too Much Impairs Decision-Making

JoVE 10334

Source: Peter Mende-Siedlecki & Jay Van Bavel—New York University

When we are considering a tough choice between two or more attractive options, we often end up actively weighing the pros and cons of each alternative. By reflecting on their advantages and disadvantages, we attempt to fit a complex, subjective decision into an orderly set of criteria. However, research in psychology suggests that this sort of introspective approach might not always yield the most optimal outcomes.1 In other words, sometimes thinking hard about a problem or a choice may not produce desired results. Similar results have been demonstrated in the domains of emotion (participants who ruminated about a bad mood showed less mood improvement than participants who were merely distracted from their mood;2 and memory (verbalizing the details of a criminal’s face led to poorer recognition in a photo array of possible suspects.3 Furthermore, Wilson and colleagues observed that reflecting on the reasons behind one’s attitudes (i.e., considering “why” one feels a certain way) can disrupt the consistency between attitudes and behavior, and can even change attitudes.4 Why might this be the case? Wilson and colleagues speculate


 Social Psychology

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Continuous High-resolution Microscopic Observation of Replicative Aging in Budding Yeast

1Molecular Systems Biology, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, University of Groningen, 2Department for the Biology of Ageing, European Research Institute for the Biology of Ageing, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, 3Institute of Biochemistry, ETH Zurich, 4Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, 5Institute of Molecular Systems Biology, ETH Zurich

JoVE 50143


 Bioengineering

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A Wireless, Bidirectional Interface for In Vivo Recording and Stimulation of Neural Activity in Freely Behaving Rats

1Behavioral Neuroscience, Experimental and Biological Psychology, Philipps-Universität Marburg, 2Behavioral Neurosciences Institute (INeC), 3Thomas RECORDING GmbH, 4Department of Neurophysics, Philipps-Universität Marburg

JoVE 56299


 Behavior

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Simultaneous Detection of c-Fos Activation from Mesolimbic and Mesocortical Dopamine Reward Sites Following Naive Sugar and Fat Ingestion in Rats

1Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Cluster, Psychology Doctoral Program, The Graduate Center, CUNY, New York, NY, 2Department of Psychology, Queens College, CUNY, Flushing, NY, 3Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Cluster, Psychology Doctoral Program, The Graduate Center, CUNY, Flushing, NY

JoVE 53897


 Neuroscience

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Standardized Colon Ascendens Stent Peritonitis in Rats - a Simple, Feasible Animal Model to Induce Septic Acute Kidney Injury

1Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Center, 2Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, University of Würzburg, 3Department of General, Visceral, Vascular and Paediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery I, University of Würzburg, 4Department of Internal Medicine I, Division of Nephrology, University Hospital Würzburg, 5Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, West Virginia University School of Medicine

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JoVE 54448


 JoVE In-Press

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