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Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in Dna replication; Genetic transcription of DNA to RNA, and Genetic translation of RNA into Polypeptides.

Generation of a Gene-disrupted Streptococcus mutans Strain Without Gene Cloning

1Department of Translational Research, Tsurumi University School of Dental Medicine, 2Endowed Department of International Oral Health Science (affiliated with Department of Translational Research), Tsurumi University School of Dental Medicine, 3Cariology and Operative Dentistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56319


 JoVE In-Press

Quantification of Information Encoded by Gene Expression Levels During Lifespan Modulation Under Broad-range Dietary Restriction in C. elegans

1Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, King's College London, 2Interdisciplinary Bioengineering Graduate Program, Georgia Institute of Technology, 3Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 4School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology

JoVE 56292


 Genetics

Detecting Environmental Microorganisms with the Polymerase Chain Reaction and Gel Electrophoresis

JoVE 10081

Source: Laboratories of Dr. Ian Pepper and Dr. Charles Gerba - Arizona University
Demonstrating Author: Bradley Schmitz

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used to detect microorganisms that are present in soil, water, and atmospheric environments. By amplifying specific sections of DNA, PCR can facilitate the detection and identification of target microorganisms down to the species, strain, and serovar/pathovar level. The technique can also be utilized to characterize entire communities of microorganisms in samples. The culturing of microorganisms in the laboratory using specialized growth media is a long-established technique and remains in use for the detection of microorganisms in environmental samples. Many microbes in the natural environment, while alive, maintain low levels of metabolic activity and/or doubling times and are thus referred to as viable but non-culturable (VBNC) organisms. The use of culture-based techniques alone cannot detect these microbes and, therefore, does not provide a thorough assessment of microbial populations in samples. The use of PCR allows for the detection of culturable microbes, VBNC organisms, and those that are no longer alive or active, as the amplification of genetic sequences does not generally require the pre-enrichment of microorga


 Environmental Microbiology

Building Up a High-throughput Screening Platform to Assess the Heterogeneity of HER2 Gene Amplification in Breast Cancers

1Division of Pathology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 2School of Medicine, University of Milan, 3School of Biology, University of Pavia, 4Division of Breast Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 5Division of Medical Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 6Department of Biomedical, Surgical, and Dental Sciences, University of Milan

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56686


 JoVE In-Press

Protocols for Investigating the Host-tissue Distribution, Transmission-mode, and Effect on the Host Fitness of a Densovirus in the Cotton Bollworm

1State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 2Tobacco Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 3Crop and Environment Sciences, Harper Adams University

JoVE 55534


 Immunology and Infection

Chitosan/Interfering RNA Nanoparticle Mediated Gene Silencing in Disease Vector Mosquito Larvae

1Division of Biology, Kansas State University, 2Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, 3Eck Institute for Global Health, University of Notre Dame, 4Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 5Department of Entomology, Kansas State University

JoVE 52523


 Biology

Employing Digital Droplet PCR to Detect BRAF V600E Mutations in Formalin-fixed Paraffin-embedded Reference Standard Cell Lines

1Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, 2The Center for Anti-Cancer CDx, N-Bio, Seoul National University, 3ABION CRO, 4ABION Inc., R&D Center

JoVE 53190


 Biology

Protocols for Implementing an Escherichia coli Based TX-TL Cell-Free Expression System for Synthetic Biology

1Department of Biology, California Institute of Technology, 2Department of Bioengineering, California Institute of Technology, 3Synthetic Biology Center, Department of Bioengineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 4School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota

JoVE 50762


 Biology

Testing For Genetically Modified Foods

JoVE 10044

Source: Laboratories of Margaret Workman and Kimberly Frye - Depaul University

Genetic modification of foods has been a controversial issue due to debated concerns over health and environmental safety. This experiment demonstrates technical understanding of how food DNA is genetically identified, allowing for educated decision making about the safety and potential dangers of using genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food supplies. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is used to amplify food DNA to test for the presence of genetically modified DNA in food products. Presence of specific DNA bands is detected by using gel electrophoresis to pull extracted food DNA through a 3% agarose gel, a concentration dense enough to separate the bands of DNA containing the genetically modified DNA. Several controls are used in the electrophoresis procedure to ensure DNA is successfully extracted from test foods (plant primer), and to provide known examples of both genetically modified DNA (purchased genetically modified DNA) and non-genetically modified DNA (purchased certified non-GMO food control).


 Environmental Science

The Aortic Ring Co-culture Assay: A Convenient Tool to Assess the Angiogenic Potential of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells In Vitro

1Create Fertility Centre, 2Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toronto, 4Department of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women's College Hospital

JoVE 56083


 Developmental Biology

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