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Thyroid Gland: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the Trachea. It secretes Thyroid hormones from the follicular cells and Calcitonin from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating Metabolism and Calcium level in blood, respectively.

Thyroid Exam

JoVE 10098

Source: Richard Glickman-Simon, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, MA

The thyroid gland is located in the neck anterior trachea between the cricoid cartilage (above) and the suprasternal notch (below) (Figure 1). It consists of a right and left lobe connected by an isthmus. The isthmus covers the second, third, and fourth tracheal rings, and the lobes curve posteriorly around the sides of the trachea and esophagus. The normal gland, weighing 10 - 25 g, is usually invisible on inspection and often difficult to palpate. A goiter is an enlarged thyroid from any cause. In addition to assessing its size, it is important to palpate the thyroid for its shape, mobility, consistency, and tenderness. A normal thyroid is soft, smooth, symmetrical, and non-tender, and it slides upward slightly when swallowing. Symmetrical enlargement of a soft, smooth thyroid suggests endemic hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency or one of two prevalent autoimmune disorders: Graves' disease or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thyroid nodules are common and usually incidental; however, 10% of thyroid nodules turn out to be malignant. They may be single or multiple, and are most often firm and non-tender. A tender, symmetrical goiter typically indicates thyr


 Physical Examinations II

Two Techniques to Create Hypoparathyroid Mice: Parathyroidectomy Using GFP Glands and Diphtheria-Toxin-Mediated Parathyroid Ablation

1Endocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2West China School of Stomatology, Sichuan University, 3Department of Oral Medicine, Infection and Immunity, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 4State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University

JoVE 55010


 Medicine

Intraperitoneal Glucose Tolerance Test, Measurement of Lung Function, and Fixation of the Lung to Study the Impact of Obesity and Impaired Metabolism on Pulmonary Outcomes

1Translational Experimental Pediatrics, Experimental Pulmonology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Cologne, 2Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Cologne, 3Division of Experimental Pediatrics and Metabolism, University Children's Hospital, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf

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JoVE 56685


 JoVE In-Press

Percutaneous Cricothyrotomy

JoVE 10239

Source: James W Bonz, MD, Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

A surgical airway procedure is indicated when other forms of endotracheal intubation have failed and ventilation is worsening or not possible. This is the feared "can't intubate, can't ventilate" scenario, and in the emergency setting, cricothyrotomy is the surgical procedure of choice. Cricothyrotomy is preferred over tracheotomy because of the lower risk of complications, the predictable anatomy of the cricothyroid membrane, and the comparative rapidity with which the procedure can be performed—even by less experienced practitioners. Cricothyrotomy traditionally has been done in an "open" form; however, percutaneous cricothyrotomy using standard Seldinger technique has been advanced as a more successful approach when identification of the relevant anatomic landmarks is more difficult. Seldinger technique involves the introduction of a device into the body through the use of an introducer needle and a guide wire. The needle is used to locate the target; a guide wire is then fed through the thin-walled needle into the target, acting as a "placeholder" for the device, which is fed over the guide wire and into the target. In the cas


 Emergency Medicine and Critical Care

Production of Genetically Engineered Golden Syrian Hamsters by Pronuclear Injection of the CRISPR/Cas9 Complex

1Department of Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Sciences, Utah State University, 2National Centre for International Research in Cell and Gene Therapy, Sino-British Research Centre, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, 3Department of Animal Science Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Plus), Gyeongsang National University, 4Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, 5Centre for Molecular Oncology, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London

JoVE 56263


 Bioengineering

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