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Tight Junctions: Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)

Cleavage and Blastulation

JoVE 10908

After a large-single-celled zygote is produced via fertilization, the process of cleavage occurs while zygotes travel through the uterine tube. Cleavage is a mitotic cell division that does not result in growth. With each round of successive cell division, daughter cells get increasingly smaller.

At the beginning of embryogenesis, maternal mRNAs control development. However, by the eight-cell stage of cleavage, embryonic genes become activated in a process called zygotic genome activation (ZGA). As a result, maternal mRNAs get degraded, and ZGA causes a transition from maternal to zygotic genetic control of developing an embryo. Although maternal mRNAs get degraded, previously translated proteins may remain in the embryo through later stages of development. Cleavage patterns vary between organisms depending on the presence and distribution of egg yolk amongst other factors. For example, mammals have a holoblastic rotational cleavage pattern. They are holoblastic because they have sparse, but evenly distributed yolk and therefore end up with a cleavage furrow that extends through the entire embryo as opposed to being meroblastic where the cleavage furrow does not extend through the yolk-dense portion of the cytoplasm. At the onset of cleavage, rotational cleavage begins when the zygote first divides to form two smaller daughter cells called blas

 Core: Reproduction and Development

Improved Method for the Establishment of an In Vitro Blood-Brain Barrier Model Based on Porcine Brain Endothelial Cells

1Lundbeck Foundation Research Initiative on Brain Barriers and Drug Delivery, Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, 2Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, King's College London, 3HICoE Centre for Drug Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia

JoVE 56277

 Medicine

Assessing Tumor Microenvironment of Metastasis Doorway-Mediated Vascular Permeability Associated with Cancer Cell Dissemination using Intravital Imaging and Fixed Tissue Analysis

1Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 2Gruss-Lipper Biophotonics Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 3Integrated Imaging Program, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 4Department of Surgery, Montefiore Medical Center, 5Department of Pathology, Montefiore Medical Center

JoVE 59633

 Cancer Research

Co-culture of Living Microbiome with Microengineered Human Intestinal Villi in a Gut-on-a-Chip Microfluidic Device

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 2Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University, 3Vascular Biology Program, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 4John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University

JoVE 54344

 Bioengineering

Stable and Efficient Genetic Modification of Cells in the Adult Mouse V-SVZ for the Analysis of Neural Stem Cell Autonomous and Non-autonomous Effects

1Cell Division and Cancer Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), 2Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), 3Departmento de Biologìa Celular, Universidad de Valencia, 4Institut de Biomedicina de la Universitat de Barcelona (IBUB), 5Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Fibroblast Reprogramming Unit, University of Brescia

JoVE 53282

 Developmental Biology

Analyzing Beneficial Effects of Nutritional Supplements on Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Functions During Experimental Colitis

1Department of Molecular Biomedicine, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, 2Department of Physiology, Biophysics and Neurosciences, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, 3Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute

JoVE 55095

 Medicine

Isolation of Enteric Glial Cells from the Submucosa and Lamina Propria of the Adult Mouse

1Department of Internal Medicine-Gastroenterology, University of Michigan, 2Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, 3Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, 4Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, 5Division of Gastroenterology, University of Arizona College of Medicine

JoVE 57629

 Biology

An Enzyme- and Serum-free Neural Stem Cell Culture Model for EMT Investigation Suited for Drug Discovery

1Dept. of Biomedicine, Pharmacenter, University of Basel, 2Molecular Signalling and Gene Therapy, Narayana Nethralaya Foundation, Narayana Health City, 3Brain Ischemia and Regeneration, Department of Biomedicine, University Hospital Basel, 4Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum Idar-Oberstein, 5Department of Neurosurgery and Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University, 6Department of Neurology, Laboratory of Molecular Neuro Oncology, University Hospital of Zurich

JoVE 54018

 Developmental Biology

A Simple Approach to Perform TEER Measurements Using a Self-Made Volt-Amperemeter with Programmable Output Frequency

1Interfaculty Institute of Biochemistry, University of Tübingen, 2Laboratory of Clinical Regenerative Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 3Department of Pediatrics, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University

JoVE 60087

 Biology

In Vitro Method to Control Concentrations of Halogenated Gases in Cultured Alveolar Epithelial Cells

1Department of Perioperative Medicine, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, 2Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité Mixte de Recherche (CNRS UMR) 6293, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) U1103, Laboratoire de Génétique, Reproduction et Développement (GReD), Université Clermont Auvergne, 3Department of Pharmacology, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, 4Nurse Anesthetist School, CHU Clermont-Ferrand

JoVE 58554

 Medicine

Analysis of Epididymal Protein Synthesis and Secretion

1Priority Research Centre for Reproductive Science, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, 2Hunter Medical Research Institute, 3Department of Physiology, Turku Center for Disease Modeling, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, 4School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle

JoVE 58308

 Developmental Biology

Isolation, Characterization, And High Throughput Extracellular Flux Analysis of Mouse Primary Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells

1Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, 2Interdisciplinary Stem Cell Institute, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, 4Vascular Biology Institute, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, 5Peggy and Harold Katz Family Drug Discovery Center, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine

JoVE 57718

 Biology

Fabrication and Validation of an Organ-on-chip System with Integrated Electrodes to Directly Quantify Transendothelial Electrical Resistance

1BIOS Lab on a Chip group, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology and Max Planck Center for Complex Fluid Dynamics, University of Twente, 2Microsystems, Eindhoven University of Technology, 3Applied Stem Cell Technologies, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, University of Twente

JoVE 56334

 Bioengineering
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