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Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the Cerebral cortex. It is coupled with Electromyography response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce Motor evoked potentials. This method is also used for Brain mapping, to study Neurophysiology, and as a substitute for Electroconvulsive therapy for treating Depression. Induction of Seizures limits its clinical usage.

Electrode Positioning and Montage in Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

1Headache & Orofacial Pain Effort (H.O.P.E.), Biologic & Material Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, 2Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 3Charité, University Medicine Berlin, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York

JoVE 2744


 Neuroscience

Bilateral Assessment of the Corticospinal Pathways of the Ankle Muscles Using Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

1Department of Neurology, New York University School of Medicine, 2Department of Health Sciences and Research, Medical University of South Carolina, 3Department of Physical Therapy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, 4Department of Health Professions, Medical University of South Carolina, 5Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, 6Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina, 7Division of Physical Therapy, Medical University of South Carolina

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58944


 JoVE In-Press

Technique and Considerations in the Use of 4x1 Ring High-definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS)

1Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2School of Medicine, Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador, 3Charité University Medicine Berlin, 4The City College of The City University of New York, 5Headache & Orofacial Pain Effort (H.O.P.E.), Biologic & Materials Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan

JoVE 50309


 Medicine

The Use of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy as a Tool for the Measurement of Bi-hemispheric Transcranial Electric Stimulation Effects on Primary Motor Cortex Metabolism

1Department of Psychology, University of Montréal, 2Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3Center for Magnetic Resonance Research and Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota

JoVE 51631


 Neuroscience

A Multimodal Imaging- and Stimulation-based Method of Evaluating Connectivity-related Brain Excitability in Patients with Epilepsy

1Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 3Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 4Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital

JoVE 53727


 Medicine

Description of a Novel, Surgically Implanted Neuromodulatory Technique Known As Bilateral Epidural Prefrontal Cortical Stimulation (Epcs) for Treatment-Resistant Depression (TRD)

1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 2Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 3Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, 4Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, 5American University of Beirut Medical Center

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56043


 JoVE In-Press

Vagus Nerve Stimulation As an Adjunctive Neurostimulation Tool in Treatment-Resistant Depression

1Universitätsklinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, 2Universitätsklinikum Bonn AöR, Klinik und Poliklinik für Psychiatrie, 3Universitätsklinik für Neurochirurgie am Evangelischen Krankenhaus Oldenburg, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, 4Klinik für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen und Gerontopsychiatrie, Abteilung für medizinische Psychologie, Klinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Universitätsklinikum Bonn, 5Psychiatrische und Psychotherapeutische Klinik, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58264


 JoVE In-Press

Home-Based Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Device Development: An Updated Protocol Used at Home in Healthy Subjects and Fibromyalgia Patients

1Post-Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), 2Laboratory of Pain & Neuromodulation, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), 3School of Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), 4Faculdade de Desenvolvimento do Rio Grande do Sul (FADERGS), Health and Wellness School Laureate International Universities, 5Biomedical Engineering Department, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), 6Pharmacology Department, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), 7Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical School, 8Spaulding Neuromodulation Center, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, 9Pain and Palliative Care Service, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), 10Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)

JoVE 57614


 Medicine

Recording Horizontal Saccade Performances Accurately in Neurological Patients Using Electro-oculogram

1Department of Cell Physiology, Kyorin University, 2Segawa Memorial Neurological Clinic for Children, 3Department of Neurology, University of Tokyo, 4Department of Neurology, Kyorin University, 5Department of Neurology, Fukushima Medical University

JoVE 56934


 Behavior

Online Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Protocol for Measuring Cortical Physiology Associated with Response Inhibition

1College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 2Division of Neurology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3Division of Psychiatry, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 4Center for Neurodevelopmental and Imaging Research, Kennedy Krieger Institute

JoVE 56789


 Neuroscience

Utilizing Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Improve Language Function in Stroke Patients with Chronic Non-fluent Aphasia

1Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 2Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania, 3Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System, 4Harold Goodglass Aphasia Research Center, Boston University School of Medicine, 5Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine

JoVE 50228


 Medicine

Simultaneous EEG Monitoring During Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 2Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES), 3Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 4De Montfort University

JoVE 50426


 Behavior

fMRI: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

JoVE 5212

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive neuroimaging technique used to investigate human brain function and cognition in both healthy individuals and populations with abnormal brain states. Functional MRI utilizes a magnetic resonance signal to detect changes in blood flow that are coupled to neuronal activation when a specific task is performed. This is possible because hemoglobin within the blood has different magnetic properties depending on whether or not it is bound to oxygen. When a certain task is performed, there is an influx of oxygenated blood to brain regions responsible for that function, and this influx can then be detected with specific MRI scan parameters. This phenomenon is termed the blood oxygen level ependent (BOLD) effect, and can be used to create maps of brain activity. This video begins with a brief overview of how MRI and fMRI signal is obtained. Then, basic experimental design is reviewed, which involves first setting up a stimulus presentation that is specifically designed to test the function that will be mapped. Next, key steps involved in performing the fMRI scan are introduced, including subject safety and setting up at the scanner. Commonly used steps for data processing are then presented, including pre-processing and statistical analysis with the general linear


 Neuroscience

An Introduction to Cognition

JoVE 5419

Cognition encompasses mental processes such as memory, perception, decision-making reasoning and language. Cognitive scientists are using a combination of behavioral and neuropsychological techniques to investigate the underlying neural substrates of cognition. They are interested in understanding how information is perceived, processed and how does it affect the final execution of behaviors. With this knowledge, researchers hope to develop new treatments for individuals with cognitive impairments. JoVE's introduction to cognition reviews several components of this phenomenon, such as perception, attention, language comprehension, etc. Key questions in the field of cognition will be discussed along with specific methods currently being used to answer these questions. Finally, specific studies that investigate different aspects of cognition using tools like functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) or Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) will be explained.


 Behavioral Science

Design and Implementation of an fMRI Study Examining Thought Suppression in Young Women with, and At-risk, for Depression

1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, 2McMaster Integrative Neuroscience Discovery and Study, McMaster University, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, 4Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour, McMaster University

JoVE 52061


 Behavior

MRI-guided dmPFC-rTMS as a Treatment for Treatment-resistant Major Depressive Disorder

1Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, 2MRI-Guided rTMS Clinic, University Health Network, 3Department of Psychiatry, University Health Network, 4Toronto Western Research Institute, University Health Network, 5Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 6Faculty of Arts and Science, University of Toronto, 7Temerty Centre for Therapeutic Brain Intervention, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health

JoVE 53129


 Medicine

A Protocol for the Use of Remotely-Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

1Multiple Sclerosis Comprehensive Care Center, Department of Neurology, NYU Langone Medical Center, 2Department of Neurology, Stony Brook Medicine, 3Soterix Medical, Inc, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York

JoVE 53542


 Medicine

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