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Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the Cerebral cortex. It is coupled with Electromyography response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce Motor evoked potentials. This method is also used for Brain mapping, to study Neurophysiology, and as a substitute for Electroconvulsive therapy for treating Depression. Induction of Seizures limits its clinical usage.

The Use of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy as a Tool for the Measurement of Bi-hemispheric Transcranial Electric Stimulation Effects on Primary Motor Cortex Metabolism

1Department of Psychology, University of Montréal, 2Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3Center for Magnetic Resonance Research and Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota

JoVE 51631


 Neuroscience

Simultaneous Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

1Department of Cognitive Neurology, University Medicine Goettingen, 2Department of Neurology, University Medicine Goettingen, 3German Primate Center, Leibniz Institute for Primate Research, 4DFG Center for Nanoscale Microscopy & Molecular Physiology of the Brain (CNMPB)

JoVE 55866


 Behavior

Effects of Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on the Primary Motor Cortex by Online Combined Approach with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

1School of Psychology, Centre for Cognition and Decision Making, National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience, Unit of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Brain Investigation & Neuromodulation Lab. (Si-BIN Lab), Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria of Siena, 3Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, 4Centre for Cognition and Decision Making, National Research University Higher School of Economics

JoVE 55839


 Neuroscience

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to the Unilateral Hemisphere of Rat Brain

1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 3Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul National University Hospital, 5Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 6Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Gangwon Do Rehabilitation Hospital, 7Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine

JoVE 54217


 Behavior

Utilizing Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Improve Language Function in Stroke Patients with Chronic Non-fluent Aphasia

1Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 2Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania, 3Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System, 4Harold Goodglass Aphasia Research Center, Boston University School of Medicine, 5Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine

JoVE 50228


 Medicine

Online Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Protocol for Measuring Cortical Physiology Associated with Response Inhibition

1College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 2Division of Neurology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3Division of Psychiatry, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 4Center for Neurodevelopmental and Imaging Research, Kennedy Krieger Institute

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56789


 JoVE In-Press

A Multimodal Imaging- and Stimulation-based Method of Evaluating Connectivity-related Brain Excitability in Patients with Epilepsy

1Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 3Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 4Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital

JoVE 53727


 Medicine

MRI-guided dmPFC-rTMS as a Treatment for Treatment-resistant Major Depressive Disorder

1Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, 2MRI-Guided rTMS Clinic, University Health Network, 3Department of Psychiatry, University Health Network, 4Toronto Western Research Institute, University Health Network, 5Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 6Faculty of Arts and Science, University of Toronto, 7Temerty Centre for Therapeutic Brain Intervention, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health

JoVE 53129


 Medicine

Technique and Considerations in the Use of 4x1 Ring High-definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS)

1Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2School of Medicine, Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador, 3Charité University Medicine Berlin, 4The City College of The City University of New York, 5Headache & Orofacial Pain Effort (H.O.P.E.), Biologic & Materials Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan

JoVE 50309


 Medicine

Simultaneous EEG Monitoring During Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 2Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES), 3Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 4De Montfort University

JoVE 50426


 Behavior

Description of a Novel, Surgically Implanted Neuromodulatory Technique Known As Bilateral Epidural Prefrontal Cortical Stimulation (Epcs) for Treatment-Resistant Depression (TRD)

1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 2Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 3Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, 4Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, 5American University of Beirut Medical Center

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56043


 JoVE In-Press

A Protocol for the Use of Remotely-Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

1Multiple Sclerosis Comprehensive Care Center, Department of Neurology, NYU Langone Medical Center, 2Department of Neurology, Stony Brook Medicine, 3Soterix Medical, Inc, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York

JoVE 53542


 Medicine

Object Substitution Masking

JoVE 10279

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

Visual masking is a term used by perceptual scientists to refer to a wide range of phenomena in which in an image is presented but not perceived by an observer because of the presentation of a second image. There are several different kinds of masking, many of them relatively intuitive and unsurprising. But one surprising and important type of masking is called Object Substitution Masking. It has been a focus of research in vision science since it was discovered, relatively recently, around 1997 by Enns and Di Lollo.1 This video will demonstrate standard procedures for how to conduct an object substitution experiment, how to analyze the results, and it will also explain the hypothesized causes for this unusual form of masking.


 Sensation and Perception

Using TMS to Measure Motor Excitability During Action Observation

JoVE 10270

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that involves passing current through an insulated coil placed against the scalp. A brief magnetic field is created by current in the coil, and because of the physical process of induction, this leads to a current in the nearby neural tissue. Depending on the duration, frequency, and magnitude of these magnetic pulses, the underlying neural circuitry can be affected in many different ways. Here, we demonstrate the technique of single-pulse TMS, in which one brief magnetic pulse is used to stimulate the neocortex. One observable effect of TMS is that it can produce muscle twitches when applied over the motor cortex. Due to the somatotopic organization of the motor cortex, different muscles can be targeted depending on the precise placement of the coil. The electrical signals that cause these muscle twitches, called motor evoked potentials, or MEPs, can be recorded and quantified by electrodes placed on the skin over the targeted muscle. The amplitude of MEPs can be interpreted to reflect the underlying excitability of the motor cortex; for example, when the motor cortex is activated, observed MEPs are larger.


 Neuropsychology

Using Fiberless, Wearable fNIRS to Monitor Brain Activity in Real-world Cognitive Tasks

1Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Malet Place Engineering Building, University College London, 2Infrared Imaging Lab, Institute for Advanced Biomedical Technology (ITAB), Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara, 3Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Alexandra House, University College London

JoVE 53336


 Behavior

Design and Implementation of an fMRI Study Examining Thought Suppression in Young Women with, and At-risk, for Depression

1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, 2McMaster Integrative Neuroscience Discovery and Study, McMaster University, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, 4Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour, McMaster University

JoVE 52061


 Behavior

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