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Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with Tgf-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. Tgf-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. Tgf-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products Tgf-beta1, Tgf-beta2 or Tgf-beta3. Heterodimers composed of Tgf-beta1 and 2 (Tgf-beta1.2) or of Tgf-beta2 and 3 (Tgf-beta2.3) have been isolated. The Tgf-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.

Optimized Protocol for the Extraction of Proteins from the Human Mitral Valve

1Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, 2Cardiovascular Tissue Bank of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, 3Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Cardiovascular Section, University of Milan, 4Department of Cardiovascular Disease, Development and Innovation Cardiac Surgery Unit, Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS

JoVE 55762


 Biochemistry

Molecular Analysis of Endothelial-mesenchymal Transition Induced by Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling

1David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 3Hastings Center for Pulmonary Research, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 4Department of Molecular Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo

JoVE 57577


 Biology

High Efficiency Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Cardiomyocytes and Characterization by Flow Cytometry

1Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Wisconsin, 2Stanford Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, 3Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 4Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Consortium, LKS Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong University, 5Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 6Cardiovascular Research Center, Biotechnology and Bioengineering Center, Medical College of Wisconsin

JoVE 52010


 Biology

Isolation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Alveolar Periosteum and Effects of Vitamin D on Osteogenic Activity of Periosteum-derived Cells

1Chang Gung University, 2Department of Periodontics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 3California Northstate University College of Medicine, 4Department of Nephrology, Clinical Poison Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 5Kidney Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 6Center for Tissue Engineering, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 7Department of Periodontics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 8College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University

JoVE 57166


 Bioengineering

Improved Method for the Establishment of an In Vitro Blood-Brain Barrier Model Based on Porcine Brain Endothelial Cells

1Lundbeck Foundation Research Initiative on Brain Barriers and Drug Delivery, Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, 2Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, King's College London, 3HICoE Centre for Drug Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia

JoVE 56277


 Medicine

A Combined 3D Tissue Engineered In Vitro/In Silico Lung Tumor Model for Predicting Drug Effectiveness in Specific Mutational Backgrounds

1Department of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine (TERM), University Hospital Wuerzburg, 2Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University Hospital Wuerzburg, 3Department of Bioinformatics, University Wuerzburg, 4Translational Center Wuerzburg, Fraunhofer Institute Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology IGB

JoVE 53885


 Bioengineering

The Murine Choline-Deficient, Ethionine-Supplemented (CDE) Diet Model of Chronic Liver Injury

1School of Biomedical Sciences & Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, 2School of Public Health & Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, 3Institute of Biochemistry, Christian-Albrechts-University, 4School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, 5Centenary Institute of Cancer Medicine and Cell Biology, The University of Sydney, 6Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, 7A.W. Morrow Gastroenterology and Liver Centre, 8QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, 9Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, 10Fiona Stanley and Fremantle Hospitals, 11School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, 12School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia

JoVE 56138


 Biology

Differentiating Chondrocytes from Peripheral Blood-derived Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

1Department of Orthopedics, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, 2Key Laboratory of Genomic and Precision Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3Clinical and Translational Research Center of Shanghai First Maternity & Infant Hospital, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Tongji University

JoVE 55722


 Developmental Biology

Isolation of Cerebral Capillaries from Fresh Human Brain Tissue

1Sanders-Brown Center on Aging, Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, 3Department of Neuroscience, University of Kentucky

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 57346


 JoVE In-Press

A Novel Feeder-free System for Mass Production of Murine Natural Killer Cells In Vitro

1Department of Anatomical and Cellular Pathology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences and Department of Medicine & Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

JoVE 56785


 Immunology and Infection

Generation of Knock-out Primary and Expanded Human NK Cells Using Cas9 Ribonucleoproteins

1Center for Childhood Cancer and Blood Disease, Nationwide Children's Hospital, 2Nuffield Division of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, 3Center for Clinical and Translational Research, Nationwide Children's Hospital Research Institute

JoVE 58237


 Immunology and Infection

Utilizing Functional Genomics Screening to Identify Potentially Novel Drug Targets in Cancer Cell Spheroid Cultures

1The Breast Cancer Now Toby Robins Research Centre, Division of Breast Cancer, The Institute of Cancer Research, 2Division of Molecular Pathology, The Institute of Cancer Research, 3Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester

JoVE 54738


 Cancer Research

Generation of Human 3D Lung Tissue Cultures (3D-LTCs) for Disease Modeling

1Comprehensive Pneumology Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and Helmholtz Zentrum Munich, 2German Center of Lung Research (DZL), 3Translational Lung Research and CPC-M bioArchive, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Comprehensive Pneumology Center Munich DZL/CPC-M, 4Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lung Bioengineering and Regeneration, Lund University, 5Wallenberg Center for Molecular Medicine, Lund University, 6Stem Cell Centre, Lund University, 7Asklepios Fachkliniken Munich-Gauting, 8Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58437


 JoVE In-Press

Isolation and Characterization of Primary Rat Valve Interstitial Cells: A New Model to Study Aortic Valve Calcification

1Developmental Biology, The Roslin Institute and R(D)SVS, University of Edinburgh, 2Guangzhou Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, 3Clinical Sciences and R(D)SVS, University of Edinburgh

JoVE 56126


 Developmental Biology

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