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Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with Tgf-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. Tgf-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. Tgf-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products Tgf-beta1, Tgf-beta2 or Tgf-beta3. Heterodimers composed of Tgf-beta1 and 2 (Tgf-beta1.2) or of Tgf-beta2 and 3 (Tgf-beta2.3) have been isolated. The Tgf-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.

Optimized Protocol for the Extraction of Proteins from the Human Mitral Valve

1Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, 2Cardiovascular Tissue Bank of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, 3Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Cardiovascular Section, University of Milan, 4Department of Cardiovascular Disease, Development and Innovation Cardiac Surgery Unit, Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS

JoVE 55762


 Biochemistry

High Efficiency Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Cardiomyocytes and Characterization by Flow Cytometry

1Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Wisconsin, 2Stanford Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, 3Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 4Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Consortium, LKS Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong University, 5Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 6Cardiovascular Research Center, Biotechnology and Bioengineering Center, Medical College of Wisconsin

JoVE 52010


 Biology

Improved Method for the Establishment of an In Vitro Blood-Brain Barrier Model Based on Porcine Brain Endothelial Cells

1Lundbeck Foundation Research Initiative on Brain Barriers and Drug Delivery, Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, 2Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, King's College London, 3HICoE Centre for Drug Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia

JoVE 56277


 Medicine

A Combined 3D Tissue Engineered In Vitro/In Silico Lung Tumor Model for Predicting Drug Effectiveness in Specific Mutational Backgrounds

1Department of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine (TERM), University Hospital Wuerzburg, 2Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University Hospital Wuerzburg, 3Department of Bioinformatics, University Wuerzburg, 4Translational Center Wuerzburg, Fraunhofer Institute Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology IGB

JoVE 53885


 Bioengineering

The Murine Choline-Deficient, Ethionine-Supplemented (CDE) Diet Model of Chronic Liver Injury

1School of Biomedical Sciences & Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, 2School of Public Health & Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, 3Institute of Biochemistry, Christian-Albrechts-University, 4School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, 5Centenary Institute of Cancer Medicine and Cell Biology, The University of Sydney, 6Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, 7A.W. Morrow Gastroenterology and Liver Centre, 8QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, 9Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, 10Fiona Stanley and Fremantle Hospitals, 11School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, 12School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia

JoVE 56138


 Biology

Differentiating Chondrocytes from Peripheral Blood-derived Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

1Department of Orthopedics, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, 2Key Laboratory of Genomic and Precision Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3Clinical and Translational Research Center of Shanghai First Maternity & Infant Hospital, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Tongji University

JoVE 55722


 Developmental Biology

A Novel Feeder-free System for Mass Production of Murine Natural Killer Cells In Vitro

1Department of Anatomical and Cellular Pathology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences and Department of Medicine & Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

JoVE 56785


 Immunology and Infection

Utilizing Functional Genomics Screening to Identify Potentially Novel Drug Targets in Cancer Cell Spheroid Cultures

1The Breast Cancer Now Toby Robins Research Centre, Division of Breast Cancer, The Institute of Cancer Research, 2Division of Molecular Pathology, The Institute of Cancer Research, 3Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester

JoVE 54738


 Cancer Research

Isolation and Characterization of Primary Rat Valve Interstitial Cells: A New Model to Study Aortic Valve Calcification

1Developmental Biology, The Roslin Institute and R(D)SVS, University of Edinburgh, 2Guangzhou Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, 3Clinical Sciences and R(D)SVS, University of Edinburgh

JoVE 56126


 Developmental Biology

Monitoring Astrocyte Reactivity and Proliferation in Vitro Under Ischemic-Like Conditions

1Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, Universidad Central del Caribe, 2Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Universidad Central del Caribe, 3Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical Sciences, Campus, University of Puerto Rico

JoVE 55108


 Neuroscience

Assessing Collagen and Elastin Pressure-Dependent Microarchitectures in Live, Human Resistance Arteries by Label-Free Fluorescence Microscopy

1Department of Cardiovascular and Renal Research, Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, 3Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Odense University Hospital

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 57451


 JoVE In-Press

Isolation and Characterization of Satellite Cells from Rat Head Branchiomeric Muscles

1Department of Orthodontics and Craniofacial Biology, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, 2Department of Biological Structure, University of Washington School of Medicine, 3Department of Biochemistry, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center

JoVE 52802


 Developmental Biology

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