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Transition Temperature: The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.

Isolation and Characterization of Cardiac Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Endomyocardial Bioptic Samples of Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy Patients.

1Vascular Biology and Regenerative Medicine Unit, Centro Cardiologico Monzino-IRCCS, 2Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, 3Heart Rhythm Center, Centro Cardiologico Monzino-IRCCS

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JoVE 57263


 JoVE In-Press

Organocatalysis

JoVE 10352

Source: Vy M. Dong and Faben Cruz, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA

This experiment will demonstrate the concept of organocatalysis by illustrating the proper setup of a reaction that utilizes enamine catalysis. Organocatalysis is a form of catalysis that uses substoichiometric amounts of small organic molecules to accelerate reactions. This type of catalysis is complementary to other forms of catalysis such as transition metal or biocatalysis. Transition metal catalysis involves transition metals as catalysts and biocatalysis uses enzymes as catalysts. Some advantages of organocatalysis include the low toxicity and cost of the organocatalysts in comparison to many metal catalysts. In addition, most organocatalysts are not sensitive to air and moisture, unlike metal catalysts. In contrast to enzymes found in living organisms, the small molecules that act as organocatalysts are typically easy to access. Furthermore, organocatalysis offers complementary and new reactivity not observed with other forms of catalysis.


 Organic Chemistry II

Isolation of Murine Embryonic Hemogenic Endothelial Cells

1Departments of Medicine, Genetics and Biomedical Engineering, Yale Cardiovascular Research Center, Vascular Biology and Therapeutics Program, Yale Stem Cell Center, Yale University School of Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 3Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine

JoVE 54150


 Developmental Biology

A Protocol for Measuring Cue Reactivity in a Rat Model of Cocaine Addiction

1Center for Addiction Research, University of Texas Medical Branch, 2Department of Neurology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 3Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 4Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 5Institute for Translational Sciences, University of Texas Medical Branch, 6Mitchell Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, University of Texas Medical Branch

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JoVE 55864


 JoVE In-Press

Indacenodithienothiophene-Based Ternary Organic Solar Cells: Concept, Devices and Optoelectronic Analysis

1Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (I-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, 2Macromolecular Chemistry Group (buwmakro) and Institute for Polymer Technology, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, 3Department of Materials Science Engineering, University of Ioannina, 4Advent Technologies SA, 5National Hellenic Research Foundation (NHRF), 6Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern)

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JoVE 54007


 JoVE In-Press

Scalable Solution-processed Fabrication Strategy for High-performance, Flexible, Transparent Electrodes with Embedded Metal Mesh

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hong Kong, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 3Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, 4Department of Chemistry, University of Hong Kong, 5HKU-Shenzhen Institute of Research and Innovation

JoVE 56019


 Engineering

Basic Care Procedures

JoVE 10290

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

Mice and rats account for over 90% of the animals used for biomedical research. The proper care of these research animals is critical to the outcome of experiments. There are general procedures that apply to the majority of these mice and rats, but some of the animals, such as the immunocompromised ones, require additional steps to be taken to sustain them for experimentation. Commonly used immunocompromised mice include those that have naturally occurred in inbred mice and those that have been created through genetic engineering. The first immunocompromised mice used in research were "nude" mice. The BALB/c Nude (nu) mouse was discovered in 1966, within a BALB/c colony that was producing mice lacking both hair and a thymus. These athymic mice have an inhibited immune system that is devoid of T cells. The value of this animal was soon discovered for the use in studies of microbial infections, immune deficiencies, and autoimmunity. Although not as commonly used as the nude mouse, there is also a nude rat. The nude rat is T cell deficient and shows depleted cell populations in thymus-dependent areas of peripheral lymphoid organs. Another naturally occurring immune deficient mouse is the severe comb


 Lab Animal Research

Mammalian Cell Division in 3D Matrices via Quantitative Confocal Reflection Microscopy

1Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 2Johns Hopkins Physical Sciences - Oncology Center, Johns Hopkins University, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 4Departments of Oncology and Pathology and Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

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JoVE 56364


 JoVE In-Press

Rapid Diagnosis of Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds: Use of a Portable rRT-PCR and Freeze-dried Reagents in the Field

1USGS Western Ecological Research Center, 2Wildlife Health Center, University of California, Davis, 3Department of Population Health and Reproduction, University of California, Davis, 4Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota, 5Science Applications International Corporation

JoVE 2829


 Immunology and Infection

Methods to Increase the Sensitivity of High Resolution Melting Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Genotyping in Malaria

1Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, 2Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 3Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cheikh Anta Diop University, 4School of Nursing and Health Sciences, Simmons College, 5Institute of Infectious Diseases, Broad Institute

JoVE 52839


 Immunology and Infection

Performing Vaginal Lavage, Crystal Violet Staining, and Vaginal Cytological Evaluation for Mouse Estrous Cycle Staging Identification

1Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Neural Regeneration Laboratory and Ottawa Institute of Systems Biology, 2Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, 3CIHR Program in Neurodegenerative Lipidomics, University of Ottawa, 4Carleton Immersive Media Studio, Azrieli School of Architecture and Urbanism

JoVE 4389


 Biology

Synthesis of an Oxygen-Carrying Cobalt(II) Complex

JoVE 10430

Source: Deepika Das, Tamara M. Powers, Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University

Bioinorganic chemistry is the field of study that investigates the role that metals play in biology. Approximately half of all proteins contain metals and it is estimated that up to one third of all proteins rely on metal-containing active sites to function. Proteins that feature metals, called metalloproteins, play a vital role in a variety of cell functions that are necessary for life. Metalloproteins have intrigued and inspired synthetic inorganic chemists for decades, and many research groups have dedicated their programs to modeling the chemistry of metal-containing active sites in proteins through the study of coordination compounds. The transport of O2 is a vital process for living organisms. O2-transport metalloproteins are responsible for binding, transporting, and releasing oxygen, which can then be used for life processes such as respiration. The oxygen-carrying cobalt coordination complex, [N,N'-bis(salicylaldehyde)ethylenediimino]cobalt(II) [Co(salen)]2 has been studied extensively to gain understanding about how metal complexes reversibly bind O2.1 In this experiment, we will synthesize [Co


 Inorganic Chemistry

A High Throughput, Multiplexed and Targeted Proteomic CSF Assay to Quantify Neurodegenerative Biomarkers and Apolipoprotein E Isoforms Status

1Centre for Translational Omics, Genetics and Genomic Medicine Deptartment, Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, University College London, 2Dementia Research Centre, Institute of Neurology, University College London, 3Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, 4Neurology Unit, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, 5Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, University College London

JoVE 54541


 Medicine

Fundamentals of Breeding and Weaning

JoVE 10293

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

Millions of mice and rats are bred for use in biomedical research each year. Worldwide, there are several large commercial breeding facilities that supply mice to research laboratories, but many facilities choose to also breed mice and rats in-house to reduce costs and increase research options. When breeding in the animal facility, researchers are able to manipulate the genetics of the animals, time the pregnancies to meet the needs of the research, and work with embryos and neonates as required. Mice and rats can be bred in a variety of schemes and methods. Technical procedures, such as the use of vaginal cytology, visualization of the vaginal area, and observation of copulatory plugs, have been developed to assist with the synchronization of breeding to correspond to research requirements. This manuscript is an overview of the basic fundamentals of mouse and rat breeding and technical procedures used. More detailed descriptions of the complex breeding schemes, and the full description of the methods for vaginal cytology, are available in the list of references.


 Lab Animal Research

Multi-electrode Array Recordings of Human Epileptic Postoperative Cortical Tissue

1Neuroglial Interactions in Cerebral Physiopathology, Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Biology, CNRS UMR 7241, INSERM U1050, Collège de France, 2Infantile Epilepsies & Brain Plasticity, INSERM U1129, PRES, Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CEA, 3Neurosurgery Department, Necker Hospital, AP-HP, Paris Descartes University, 4Rare Epilepsies Reference Center, Necker Hospital, AP-HP, Paris Descartes University, 5Neurophysiology Department, La Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, AP-HP, Sorbonne and Pierre and Marie Curie University

JoVE 51870


 Medicine

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