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Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, practicability, etc., of these interventions in individual cases or series.

DNA Ligation Reactions

JoVE 5069

In molecular biology, ligation refers to the joining of two DNA fragments through the formation of a phosphodiester bond. An enzyme known as a ligase catalyzes the ligation reaction. In the cell, ligases repair single and double strand breaks that occur during DNA replication. In the laboratory, DNA ligase is used during molecular cloning to join DNA fragments of inserts with vectors – carrier DNA molecules that will replicate target fragments in host organisms. This video provides an introduction to DNA ligation. The basic principle of ligation is described as well as a step-by-step procedure for setting up a generalized ligation reaction. Critical aspects of ligation reactions are discussed, such as how the length of a sticky end overhang affects the reaction temperature and how the ratio of DNA insert to vector should be tailored to prevent self-ligation. Molecular tools that assist with ligations like the Klenow Fragment and shrimp alkaline phosphatase (SAP) are mentioned, and applications , such as proximity ligations and the addition of linkers to fragments for sequencing are also presented.


 Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

The Simple Experiment: Two-group Design

JoVE 10056

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University

A two-group design is the simplest way to establish a cause-effect relationship between two variables. This video demonstrates a simple experiment (two-group design).  In providing an overview of how a researcher conducts a simple experiment (two-group design), this video shows viewers the process of turning ideas into testable ideas and forming hypothesis, the identification and effect of experiment variables, the formation of experimental conditions and controls, the process of conducting the study, the collection of results, and the consideration their implications. This research technique is demonstration in the context of answering the research question: “How does physiological arousal/excitement influence perceived attraction?”


 Experimental Psychology

Placebos in Research

JoVE 10032

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University

Clinical research focuses on the efficacy of treatments for addressing disorders and illnesses. A challenge with this type of research is that participants often have pre-existing beliefs about the treatment, particularly expectations that the treatment will work. Though it has been practiced around the world for centuries, yoga is a relatively recent fitness craze in the United States with a wide range of alleged benefits, including the belief that it improves one’s creativity. However, it is not always clear whether yoga is actually creating the benefits, like improved creativity, or the yoga practitioner’s expectations are really the cause. This video demonstrates a two-group design that examines whether a person who believes he or she is doing yoga (but in reality is not) experiences similar benefits to a person who actually does yoga. Specifically, this study looks at whether there is a placebo effect such that merely believing you are doing yoga benefits creativity.  Psychological studies often use higher sample sizes than studies in other sciences. A large number of participants help


 Experimental Psychology

The Multi-group Experiment

JoVE 10057

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University

A multi-group design is an experimental design that has 3 or more conditions/groups of the same independent variable. This video demonstrates a multi-group experiment that examines how different interethnic ideologies (multiculturalism and color-blind) influence feelings about diversity and actions toward and out-group member. In providing an overview of how a researcher conducts a multi-group experiment, this video shows viewers how to distinguish levels in variables, common types of conditions/groups to use (including placebo and empty-control conditions/groups), the process of conducting the study, the collection of results, and the consideration of their implications.   


 Experimental Psychology

An Introduction to Neurophysiology

JoVE 5201

Neurophysiology is broadly defined as the study of nervous system function. In this field, scientists investigate the central and peripheral nervous systems at the level of whole organs, cellular networks, single cells, or even subcellular compartments. A unifying feature of this wide-ranging discipline is an interest in the mechanisms that lead to the generation and propagation of electrical impulses within and between neurons. This subject is important not only for our understanding of the fascinating processes driving human thought, but also for our ability to diagnose and treat disorders related to nervous system malfunction. This video will provide an introduction to the field of neurophysiology, beginning with a brief history of neurophysiological research that showcases landmark studies like Galvani’s observations of twitching frog legs and Eccles’s discovery of the chemical synapse. Next, key questions asked by neurophysiologists are introduced, followed by an overview of some prominent experimental tools used to answer those questions. The methods presented range from techniques used to investigate single cells, like patch clamping, to those that can measure activity across large regions of the brain, like electroencephalography (EEG). Finally, applications of neurophysiological research are discuss


 Neuroscience

Within-subjects Repeated-measures Design

JoVE 10034

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University

A within-subjects, or repeated-measures, design is an experimental design where all the participants receive every level of the treatment, i.e., every independent variable. For example, in a candy taste test, the researcher would want every participant to taste and rate each type of candy. This video demonstrates a within-subjects experiment (i.e., one where there is an independent variable with several variations or levels) that examines how different motivational messages (e.g., hard work, self-affirmation, outcomes, and positive affect) influence willingness to exert physical effort. As a within-subjects design, the participant will read each of the four types of motivational messages and then lift weights to measure physical effort. By providing an overview of how a researcher conducts a repeated-measures experiment, this video allows viewers to see how to address order effects through counterbalancing, which involves a systematic approach to making sure all possible orders of the conditions occur in the study. Psychological studies often use higher


 Experimental Psychology

Analysis of 18FDG PET/CT Imaging as a Tool for Studying Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection and Treatment in Non-human Primates

1Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center

JoVE 56375


 Immunology and Infection

Combined SPECT and CT Imaging to Visualize Cardiac Functionality

JoVE 10396

Source: Alycia G. Berman, James A. Schaber, and Craig J. Goergen, Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

Here we will demonstrate the fundamentals of single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging using mice. The technique involves injecting a radionuclide into a mouse, imaging the animal after it is distributed throughout the body, and then reconstructing the produced images to create a volumetric dataset. This can provide information about anatomy, physiology, and metabolism to improve disease diagnosis and monitor its progression. In terms of collected data, SPECT/CT provides similar information as positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. However, the underlying principles of these two techniques are fundamentally different since PET requires the detection of two gamma photons, which are emitted in opposite directions. In contrast, SPECT imaging directly measures radiation via a gamma camera. As a result, SPECT imaging has lower spatial resolution than PET. However, it is also less expensive because the SPECT radioactive isotopes are more readily available. SPECT/CT imaging provides both noninvasive metabolic and anatomical information that can be useful for a wide variety of applications.


 Biomedical Engineering

Electrode Positioning and Montage in Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

1Headache & Orofacial Pain Effort (H.O.P.E.), Biologic & Material Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, 2Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 3Charité, University Medicine Berlin, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York

JoVE 2744


 Neuroscience

Comprehensive Protocol to Sample and Process Bone Marrow for Measuring Measurable Residual Disease and Leukemic Stem Cells in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

1Department of Hematology, VU University Medical Center, 2Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, VU University Medical Center, 3Janssen Research & Development, LLC, 4Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology

JoVE 56386


 Cancer Research

Detection of a Circulating MicroRNA Custom Panel in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

1Biosciences Laboratory, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, 2Department of Medical Oncology, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, 3Unit of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58615


 JoVE In-Press

Measurements of Motor Function and Other Clinical Outcome Parameters in Ambulant Children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

1Division of Pediatric Neurology, University Children's Hospital Basel (UKBB), University of Basel, 2Department of Neurology, University of Basel Hospital, 3Division of Neurology, Medical University Clinic, Kantonsspital Baselland, 4Division of Pediatric Neurology, CHUV, 5Division of Neuropaediatrics, Inselspital, University Children's Hospital Bern, 6Department of Radiology, Division of Radiological Physics, University of Basel Hospital, 7Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Femme-Mère-Enfant, L'Escale, Service de Médecine Physique et de Réadaptation Pédiatrique

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58784


 JoVE In-Press

Noninvasive, In-pen Approach Test for Laboratory-housed Pigs

1Animal Sciences and Industry, Kansas State University, 2DynaSim Technical Services, INC, 3Center for Injury Biomechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 4Applied Research Associates, Inc., 5Lucent Research, LLC, 6Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Washington

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58597


 JoVE In-Press

The Combined Use of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Robotic Therapy for the Upper Limb

1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Instituto de Reabilitação Lucy Montoro, 2Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School

JoVE 58495


 Neuroscience

Laparoscopic Intracapsular Rotary-Cut Procedure: A Modified Myomectomy Procedure Facilitating Fertility Preservation

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, 2Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Gynecological Diagnostic Technology Research, 3Specialist of SZSM Project, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58410


 JoVE In-Press

Unicellular Selection of Living Cells in Liquid Medium Using Laser Microdissection and a Pressure Catapulting System

1U1165, Université Paris-Diderot, INSERM, 2Pôle de Recherches Sino-Français en Science du Vivant et Génomique, Shanghai Rui Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 3Laboratoire de Pathologie, AP-HP-Hôpital Saint-Louis, 4Service d’Oncologie Médicale, AP-HP-Hôpital Avicenne, 5Université Paris 13

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58234


 JoVE In-Press

Immunostimulatory Agent Evaluation: Lymphoid Tissue Extraction and Injection Route-Dependent Dendritic Cell Activation

1Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 2Department of Medical Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, 3Department of Chemistry, Pukyong National University, 4Marine-integrated Bionics Research Center, Pukyong National University, 5Department of Biochemistry, Chungbuk National University, 6Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center

JoVE 57640


 Immunology and Infection

Vagus Nerve Stimulation As an Adjunctive Neurostimulation Tool in Treatment-Resistant Depression

1Universitätsklinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, 2Universitätsklinikum Bonn AöR, Klinik und Poliklinik für Psychiatrie, 3Universitätsklinik für Neurochirurgie am Evangelischen Krankenhaus Oldenburg, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, 4Klinik für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen und Gerontopsychiatrie, Abteilung für medizinische Psychologie, Klinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Universitätsklinikum Bonn, 5Psychiatrische und Psychotherapeutische Klinik, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58264


 JoVE In-Press

Laser-assisted Lentiviral Gene Delivery to Mouse Fertilized Eggs

1Neurobiology Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 2Comparative Medicine Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 3Reproductive and Developmental Biology Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 4Signal Transduction Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58327


 JoVE In-Press

Predicting Treatment Response to Image-Guided Therapies Using Machine Learning: An Example for Trans-Arterial Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

1Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale School of Medicine, 2Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Universitätsmedizin Charité Berlin, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale School of Engineering and Applied Science, 4Philips Research North America, 5Prescience Labs

JoVE 58382


 Medicine

Using 22C3 Anti-PD-L1 Antibody Concentrate on Biopsy and Cytology Samples from Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients

1Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Pathology, Pasteur Hospital, Hospital University Federation OncoAge, Université Côte d’Azur, 2Institute for Research on Cancer and Aging in Nice (Inserm U1081 and CNRS 7284), Université Côte d’Azur, 3Hospital-Integrated Biobank (BB-0033-00025), Pasteur Hospital, Université Côte d’Azur

JoVE 58082


 Cancer Research

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