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Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the trigeminal ganglion and project to the trigeminal nucleus of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.

Cranial Nerves Exam I (I-VI)

JoVE 10091

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

During each section of the neurological testing, the examiner uses the powers of observation to assess the patient. In some cases, cranial nerve dysfunction is readily apparent: a patient might mention a characteristic chief complaint (such as loss of smell or diplopia), or a visually evident physical sign of cranial nerve involvement, such as in facial nerve palsy. However, in many cases a patient's history doesn't directly suggest cranial nerve pathologies, as some of them (such as sixth nerve palsy) may have subtle manifestations and can only be uncovered by a careful neurological exam. Importantly, a variety of pathological conditions that are associated with alterations in mental status (such as some neurodegenerative disorders or brain lesions) can also cause cranial nerve dysfunction; therefore, any abnormal findings during a mental status exam should prompt a careful and complete neurological exam. The cranial nerve examination is applied neuroanatomy. The cranial nerves are symmetrical; therefore, while performing the examination, the examiner should compare each side to the other. A physician should approach the examination in a


 Physical Examinations III

Detection of the Genome and Transcripts of a Persistent DNA Virus in Neuronal Tissues by Fluorescent In situ Hybridization Combined with Immunostaining

1Virus and Centromere Team, Centre de Génétique et Physiologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS UMR 5534, 2Université de Lyon 1, 3Laboratoire d'excellence, LabEX DEVweCAN, 4Institut de Virologie Moléculaire et Structurale, CNRS UPR 3296, 5Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Lyon, INSERM U1052, CNRS UMR 5286

JoVE 51091


 Neuroscience

Cranial Nerves Exam II (VII-XII)

JoVE 10005

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

The cranial nerve examination follows the mental status evaluation in a neurological exam. However, the examination begins with observations made upon greeting the patient. For example, weakness of the facial muscles (which are innervated by cranial nerve VII) can be readily apparent during the first encounter with the patient. Cranial nerve VII (the facial nerve) also has sensory branches, which innervate the taste buds on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and the medial aspect of the external auditory canal. Therefore, finding ipsilateral taste dysfunction in a patient with facial weakness confirms the involvement of cranial nerve VII. In addition, knowledge of the neuroanatomy helps the clinician to localize the level of the lesion: unilateral weakness of the lower facial muscles suggests a supranuclear lesion on the opposite side, while lesions involving the nuclear or infranuclear portion of the facial nerve manifest with an ipsilateral paralysis of all the facial muscles on the involved side. Cranial nerve VIII (the acoustic nerve) has two divisions: the hearing (cochlear) division and the vestibular division, which innervates the semi


 Physical Examinations III

Use of the Operant Orofacial Pain Assessment Device (OPAD) to Measure Changes in Nociceptive Behavior

1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Florida College of Dentistry, 2Department of Neuroscience, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida College of Medicine, 3Stoelting Co., 4Department of Orthodontics, University of Florida

JoVE 50336


 Behavior

Using a Whole-mount Immunohistochemical Method to Study the Innervation of the Biliary Tract in Suncus murinus

1Department of Frontier Health Sciences, Graduate School of Human Health Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 2Department of Anatomy, Tokyo Medical University, 3Area of Regulatory Biology, Division of Life Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University

JoVE 55483


 Biology

Flat Mount Imaging of Mouse Skin and Its Application to the Analysis of Hair Follicle Patterning and Sensory Axon Morphology

1Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 2Department of Neuroscience, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

JoVE 51749


 Neuroscience

A Primary Neuron Culture System for the Study of Herpes Simplex Virus Latency and Reactivation

1Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, 2Molecular Neurobiology Program, Skirball Institute for Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 3Department of Otolaryngology, New York University School of Medicine, 4Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, 5Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, New York University School of Medicine, 6Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, 7Center for Neural Science, New York University School of Medicine

JoVE 3823


 Immunology and Infection

Surgical Training for the Implantation of Neocortical Microelectrode Arrays Using a Formaldehyde-fixed Human Cadaver Model

1Wyss Center for Bio and Neuroengineering, Geneva, 2Division of Neurology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Geneva University Hospitals, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 4Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Geneva University Hospitals, 5Clinical Anatomy Research Group, Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva

JoVE 56584


 Medicine

Electrode Positioning and Montage in Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

1Headache & Orofacial Pain Effort (H.O.P.E.), Biologic & Material Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, 2Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 3Charité, University Medicine Berlin, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York

JoVE 2744


 Neuroscience

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Partial Optic Nerve Transection in Rats: A Model Established with a New Operative Approach to Assess Secondary Degeneration of Retinal Ganglion Cells

1Aier School of Ophthalmology, Central South University, Changsha, China, 2Institute of Immunology, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing, China, 3Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University; Beijing Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences Key Laboratory, Beijing, China, 4Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University; Beijing Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences Key Laboratory, Beijing, China

JoVE 56272


 Neuroscience

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In Vitro Recording of Mesenteric Afferent Nerve Activity in Mouse Jejunal and Colonic Segments

1Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Antwerp, 2Visceral Pain Group, Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, 3Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, 4Department of Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Postgraduate Medicine, University of Hertfordshire, 5Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Antwerp University Hospital

JoVE 54576


 Neuroscience

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Using Retinal Imaging to Study Dementia

1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2Department of Medicine & Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 3Therese Pei Fong Chow Research Centre for Prevention of Dementia, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 4Gerald Choa Neuroscience Centre, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 5Memory Aging and Cognition Centre, National University Health System, 6Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore, 7Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, 8Duke-NUS Medical School, National University of Singapore

JoVE 56137


 Medicine

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