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Urinary Tract:

Male Rectal Exam

JoVE 10102

Source: Joseph Donroe, MD, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

While its usefulness in cancer screening is debated, the male rectal examination remains an important part of the physical exam. The exam is indicated in selected patients with lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary and/or fecal incontinence or retention, back pain, anorectal symptoms, abdominal complaints, trauma patients, unexplained anemia, weight loss, or bone pain. There are no absolute contraindications to the rectal exam; however, relative contraindications include patient unwillingness to undergo the exam, severe rectal pain, recent anorectal surgery or trauma, and neutropenia. When performing the rectal exam, the examiner should conceptualize the relevant anatomy. The external anal sphincter is the most distal part of the anal canal, which extends three to four centimeters before transitioning into the rectum. The prostate gland lies anterior to the rectum, just beyond the anal canal. The posterior surface of the prostate, including its apex, base, lateral lobes, and median sulcus, can be palpated through the rectal wall (Figure 1). The normal consistency of the prostate is similar to the thenar eminence when the hand is in a tight fist. The thumb knuckle is representativ


 Physical Examinations II

Abdominal Exam I: Inspection and Auscultation

JoVE 10088

Source: Alexander Goldfarb, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, MA

Gastrointestinal disease accounts for millions of office visits and hospital admissions annually. Physical examination of the abdomen is a crucial tool in diagnosing diseases of the gastrointestinal tract; in addition, it can help identify pathological processes in cardiovascular, urinary, and other systems. As physical examination in general, the examination of the abdominal region is important for establishing physician-patient contact, for reaching the preliminary diagnosis and selecting subsequent laboratory and imaging tests, and determining the urgency of care. As with the other parts of a physical examination, visual inspection and auscultation of the abdomen are done in a systematic fashion so that no potential findings are missed. Special attention should be paid to potential problems already identified by the patient's history. Here we assume that the patient has already been identified, and has had history taken, symptoms discussed, and areas of potential concern identified. In this video we will not review the patient's history; instead, we will go directly to the physical examination. Before we get to the examination, let's briefly review s


 Physical Examinations II

Isolation of Single Intracellular Bacterial Communities Generated from a Murine Model of Urinary Tract Infection for Downstream Single-cell Analysis

1Infectious Diseases Group, Genome Institute of Singapore, 2Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 3Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58829


 JoVE In-Press

Diagnostic Necropsy and Tissue Harvest

JoVE 10294

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

Many animal experiments rely on final data collection time points that are gathered from the harvesting and testing of organs and tissues. The use of appropriate methods for the collection of organs and tissues can impact the quality of the samples and the analysis of the data that is gleaned for the testing of the tissues. The method of euthanasia of the animal can also impact the quality of the samples. This manuscript will outline proper necropsy techniques for rats.


 Lab Animal Research

Compound Administration I

JoVE 10198

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

As many research protocols require that a substance be injected into an animal, the route of delivery and the amount of the substance must be accurately determined. There are several routes of administration available in the mouse and rat. Which route to use is determined by several factors of the substance to be injected: the pH of the solution, the volume required for the desired dosage, and the viscosity of the solution. Severe tissue damage can occur if a substance is administered incorrectly. This video looks at the various restraint methods and technical details for the most commonly used injection routes.


 Lab Animal Research

Sterile Tissue Harvest

JoVE 10298

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

In 1959 The 3 R's were introduced by W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch in their book The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The 3 R's are replacement, reduction, and refinement of the use of animals in research.1 The use of cell lines and tissue cultures that originated from research animals is a replacement technique, as it allows for many experiments to be conducted in vitro. Harvesting tissues and organs for use in cell and tissue cultures requires aseptic technique to avoid contamination of the tissues. Sterile harvest is also necessary for protein and RNA analysis and metabolic profiling of tissues. This manuscript will discuss the process of sterile organ harvest in rats and mice.


 Lab Animal Research

Observational Study Protocol for Repeated Clinical Examination and Critical Care Ultrasonography Within the Simple Intensive Care Studies

1Department of Critical Care, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, 2Department of Anesthesiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, 3Department of Radiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, 4Department of Cardiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, 5Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58802


 JoVE In-Press

Manual Isolation of Adipose-derived Stem Cells from Human Lipoaspirates

1Cytori Therapeutics Inc, 2Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 3Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 4Department of Orthopedic Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 5Regenerative Bioengineering and Repair Laboratory, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA

JoVE 50585


 Biology

Evaluating Virulence and Pathogenesis of Aeromonas Infection in a Caenorhabditis Elegans Model

1Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 2Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 4Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58768


 JoVE In-Press

Estimation of Nephron Number in Whole Kidney Using the Acid Maceration Method

1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, The University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Rush University Medical Center, 3Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, The University of Mississippi Medical Center, 4Department of Neurology, The University of Mississippi Medical Center

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58599


 JoVE In-Press

3-D Cell Culture System for Studying Invasion and Evaluating Therapeutics in Bladder Cancer

1Departments of Internal Medicine, Hematology/Oncology Division, Rogel Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical Center, 2Department of Urology, Division of GU Oncology, Rogel Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical Center, 3Departments of Surgery and Pathology, Perlmutter Cancer Center, NYU Langone Health

JoVE 58345


 Cancer Research

A Metadata Extraction Approach for Clinical Case Reports to Enable Advanced Understanding of Biomedical Concepts

1The NIH BD2K Center of Excellence in Biomedical Computing, University of California, Los Angeles, 2Department of Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles, 3Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of California, Los Angeles, 4Department of Cardiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 5Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, 6Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 7Scalable Analytics Institute (ScAi), University of California, Los Angeles, 8Department of Bioinformatics, University of California, Los Angeles, 9Department of Computer Science, University of California, Los Angeles

JoVE 58392


 Medicine

Anogenital Distance and Perineal Measurements of the Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) Quantification System

1Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, "Virgen de la Arrixaca", University Clinical Hospital, 2Institute for Biomedical Research of Murcia, IMIB-Arrixaca, 3Division of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Murcia School of Medicine, 4Biomedical Research Centre Network for Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), 5Department of Preventive Medicine, "Virgen de la Arrixaca", University Clinical Hospital

JoVE 57912


 Medicine

Paradigms of Lower Extremity Electrical Stimulation Training After Spinal Cord Injury

1Spinal Cord Injury and Disorders Service, Hunter Holmes McGuire VAMC, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Virginia Commonwealth University, 3Deceased, Department of Kinesiology, The University of Georgia, 4Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center

JoVE 57000


 Behavior

Cystometric and External Urethral Sphincter Measurements in Awake Rats with Implanted Catheter and Electrodes Allowing for Repeated Measurements

1Department of Urology, Spinal Cord Injury and Tissue Regeneration Center Salzburg, Paracelsus Medical University, 2Institute of Molecular Regenerative Medicine, Spinal Cord Injury and Tissue Regeneration Center Salzburg, Paracelsus Medical University, 3Brain Research Institute, University of Zürich, 4Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, 5Neuro-Urology, Spinal Cord Injury Center & Research, University of Zürich, Balgrist University Hospital, 6Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital, 7Department of Urology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital

JoVE 56506


 Biology

Visualization of the Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICC) Network in Mice

1Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 2Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 3Developmental Biology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 4Howard Hughes, Medical Institute, 5Laboratory of Chromatin Biology and Epigenetics, The Rockefeller University

JoVE 2802


 Biology

The Use of Cystometry in Small Rodents: A Study of Bladder Chemosensation

1Laboratory of Experimental Urology, Department of Development and Regeneration, KU Leuven, Belgium, 2Laboratory for Ion Channel Research, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, KU Leuven, Belgium, 3TRP Research Platform Leuven (TRPLe), KU Leuven, Belgium

JoVE 3869


 Medicine

Non-invasive Imaging of Acute Allograft Rejection after Rat Renal Transplantation Using 18F-FDG PET

1Department of Internal Medicine D, Experimental Nephrology, University of Münster, 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Münster, 3European Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of Münster

JoVE 4240


 Medicine

Bacterial Detection & Identification Using Electrochemical Sensors

1Research Service, Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, 2Department of Urology, The David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 3GeneFluidics, 4Division of Infectious Diseases, Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, 5Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles

JoVE 4282


 Bioengineering

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