Source: Laboratory of Dr. Paul Bower - Purdue University
The method of standard additions is a quantitative analysis method, which is often used when the sample of interest has multiple components that result in matrix effects, where the additional components may either reduce or enhance the analyte absorbance signal. That results in significant errors in the analysis results.
Standard additions are commonly used to eliminate matrix effects from a measurement, since it is assumed that the matrix affects all of the solutions equally. Additionally, it is used to correct for the chemical phase separations performed in the extraction process.
The method is performed by reading the experimental (in this case fluorescent) intensity of the unknown solution and then by measuring the intensity of the unknown with varying amounts of known standard added. The data are plotted as fluorescence intensity vs. the amount of the standard added (the unknown itself, with no standard added, is plotted ON the y-axis). The least squares line intersects the x-axis at the negative of the concentration of the unknown, as shown in Figure 1.
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1Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 2Center for Measurement Standards, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 3National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 4Department of Chemistry, National Changhua University of Education
1Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
1Département de Biologie, Institut de biologie intégrative et des systémes & PROTEO, Université Laval
1Brainsway LTD, 2Department of Life Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev
1Oregon Institute of Occupational Health Sciences, Oregon Health & Sciences University
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Source: Derek Wilson, Asantha Cooray, PhD, Department of Physics & Astronomy, School of Physical Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA
Semiconductors are materials whose ability to conduct an electrical current depends strongly on their temperature and level of impurity. The most common type of semiconductor material is crystalline silicon. Most pure semiconductors are not outstanding conductors; to improve conductivity, a pure semiconductor is often combined or "doped" with an impurity. These impurities are either donors, like phosphorus and arsenic, that donate electrons to the silicon, or acceptors, like boron and aluminum, that steal electrons from the silicon. When acceptors take electrons from the silicon, they leave regions of positive charge called "holes" that effectively behave as positively charged electrons.
A p-type semiconductor is formed when doping makes holes that are the dominant charge carrier in the material. An n-type semiconductor is formed when a semiconductor is doped such that the dominant charge carrier is the electron. As one might expect, a p-n junction is formed at the boundary between the p-type semiconductor and n-type semiconductor. The interaction of electrons and holes at the junction gives…
1Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, 2HHMI Janelia Research Campus, 3Berlin Institute of Medical Systems Biology of the Max Delbrück Center
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