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Ventral Tegmental Area: A region in the mesencephalon which is dorsomedial to the substantia nigra and ventral to the red nucleus. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the nucleus accumbens. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia.

Vibrodissociation of Neurons from Rodent Brain Slices to Study Synaptic Transmission and Image Presynaptic Terminals

1Section on Synaptic Pharmacology/Laboratory for Integrative Neuroscience, National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 2Department of Electronics Engineering, Ewha Womans University, 3Section on Transmitter Signaling/Laboratory of Molecular Physiology, National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

JoVE 2752


 Neuroscience

In vivo Optogenetic Stimulation of the Rodent Central Nervous System

1Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 2Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, 3Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 4Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, 5Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University

JoVE 51483


 Neuroscience

Assessment of Dopaminergic Homeostasis in Mice by Use of High-performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis and Synaptosomal Dopamine Uptake

1Molecular Neuropharmacology and Genetics Laboratory, Lundbeck Foundation Center for Biomembranes in Nanomedicine, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2Laboratory of Neuropsychiatry, Psychiatric Center Copenhagen and Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen

JoVE 56093


 Neuroscience

Examination of Rapid Dopamine Dynamics with Fast Scan Cyclic Voltammetry During Intra-oral Tastant Administration in Awake Rats

1Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Yale University, 2Department of Biotechnical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, 3Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, 4Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale School of Medicine

JoVE 52468


 Behavior

Non-invasive Imaging and Analysis of Cerebral Ischemia in Living Rats Using Positron Emission Tomography with 18F-FDG

1W. M. Keck Center for Transgene Research, University of Notre Dame, 2Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, 3Notre Dame Integrated Imaging Facility, University of Notre Dame, 4Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 5Harper Cancer Research Institute, University of Notre Dame

JoVE 51495


 Medicine

Use of Real-Time Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Neurofeedback to Downregulate Insular Cortex in Nicotine-Addicted Smokers

1Departamento de Psiquiatría, Escuela de Medicina, Centro Interdisciplinario de Neurociencias, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 2Laboratory for Brain-Machine Interfaces and Neuromodulation, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 3Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, 4Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Tübingen, 5Unidad de Imágenes Cuantitativas Avanzadas, Departamento de Imágenes, Facultad de Medicina, Clínica Alemana de Santiago, 6División de Neurociencia, Centro de Investigación en Complejidad Social (neuroCICS), Facultad de Gobierno, Universidad del Desarrollo, 7Institute di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, 8Wyss Center for Bio and Neuroengineering, 9Institute for Biological and Medical Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile

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JoVE 59441


 JoVE In-Press

Simultaneous Detection of c-Fos Activation from Mesolimbic and Mesocortical Dopamine Reward Sites Following Naive Sugar and Fat Ingestion in Rats

1Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Cluster, Psychology Doctoral Program, The Graduate Center, CUNY, New York, NY, 2Department of Psychology, Queens College, CUNY, Flushing, NY, 3Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Cluster, Psychology Doctoral Program, The Graduate Center, CUNY, Flushing, NY

JoVE 53897


 Neuroscience

Within-subjects Repeated-measures Design

JoVE 10034

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University



A within-subjects, or repeated-measures, design is an experimental design where all the participants receive every level of the treatment, i.e., every independent variable. For example, in a…


 Experimental Psychology

Self-administration Studies

JoVE 5427

Behavioral reinforcement induced by the rewarding feelings following substance use sometimes leads to addiction, which is demonstrated by increased self-administration. Drug self-administration studies in rodents model human behavior during drug abuse. These models are useful in understanding the neurobiological behavior of addiction in order to help scientists discover new treatments for…


 Behavioral Science

An Introduction to Reward and Addiction

JoVE 5425

Consequences play a major role in controlling our behavior. If the consequence is a reward, then it encourages the associated behavior. Rewards can come in many forms such as a pleasant feeling, money, or food. However, sometimes an individual engages in compulsive behavior despite of negative consequences, and this state is known as addiction. Administration of addictive substances is…


 Behavioral Science

An Introduction to Behavioral Neuroscience

JoVE 5210

Behavioral neuroscience is the study of how the nervous system guides behavior, and how the various functional areas and networks within the brain correlate to specific behaviors and disease states. Researchers in this field utilize a wide variety of experimental methods ranging from complex animal training techniques to sophisticated imaging experiments in human subjects. …


 Neuroscience

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