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Voltage-Sensitive Dye Imaging: Optical imaging techniques used for recording patterns of electrical activity in tissues by monitoring transmembrane potentials via Fluorescence imaging with voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes.
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Imaging Membrane Potential with Two Types of Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Voltage Sensors

1Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, 2Center for Functional Connectomics, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 3College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, 4Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology

JoVE 53566


 Neuroscience

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Series and Parallel Resistors

JoVE 10289

Source: Yong P. Chen, PhD, Department of Physics & Astronomy, College of Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN

This experiment demonstrates how current is distributed in resistors connected in series or parallel, and thus describes how to calculate the total "effective" resistance. Using Ohm's law, it possible to convert between the voltage and current through a resistance, if the resistance is known. For two resistors connected in series, (meaning that they are wired one after the other), the same current will flow through them. The voltages will add up to a "total voltage", and thus, the total "effective resistance" is the sum of the two resistances. This is sometimes called a "voltage divider" because the total voltage is divided between the two resistors in proportion to their individual resistances. For two resistors connected in parallel, (meaning that they are both wired between two shared terminals), the current is split between the two while they share the same voltage. In this case, the reciprocal of the total effective resistance will equal the sum of the reciprocals of the two resistances. Series and parallel resistors are a key component to most circuits and influence how electricity


 Physics II

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Real-time Iontophoresis with Tetramethylammonium to Quantify Volume Fraction and Tortuosity of Brain Extracellular Space

1Department of Medicine, University of Virginia, 2Department of Cell Biology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, 3Neural and Behavioral Science Graduate Program, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, 4Division of Neonatology, University of Virginia, 5Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, New York University School of Medicine,

JoVE 55755


 Neuroscience

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Reconstitution of a Transmembrane Protein, the Voltage-gated Ion Channel, KvAP, into Giant Unilamellar Vesicles for Microscopy and Patch Clamp Studies

1Institut Curie, Centre de Recherche, CNRS, UMR 168, PhysicoChimie Curie, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 2Kavli Institute for Brain and Mind, University of California, San Diego, 3Molecular Physiology and Biophysics Section, National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institute of Health

JoVE 52281


 Biology

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RC/RL/LC Circuits

JoVE 10318

Source: Yong P. Chen, PhD, Department of Physics & Astronomy, College of Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN

Capacitors (C), inductors (L), and resistors (R) are each an important circuit element with distinct behaviors. A resistor dissipates energy and obeys Ohm's law, with its voltage proportional to its current. A capacitor stores electrical energy, with its current proportional to the rate of change of its voltage, while an inductor stores magnetic energy, with its voltage proportional to the rate of change of its current. When these circuit elements are combined, they can cause the current or voltage to vary with time in various, interesting ways. Such combinations are commonly used to process time- or frequency-dependent electrical signals, such as in alternating current (AC) circuits, radios, and electrical filters. This experiment will demonstrate the time-dependent behaviors of the resistor-capacitor (RC), resistor-inductor (RL), and inductor-capacitor (LC) circuits. The experiment will demonstrate the transient behaviors of RC and RL circuits using a light bulb (resistor) connected in series to a capacitor or inductor, upon connecting to (and switching on) a power supply. The experiment will also demonstrate the oscillatory behavior of an LC circuit.


 Physics II

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Recording Temperature-induced Neuronal Activity through Monitoring Calcium Changes in the Olfactory Bulb of Xenopus laevis

1Institute of Neurophysiology and Cellular Biophysics, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, 2Center for Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, 3DFG Excellence Cluster 171, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, 4German Hearing Center Hannover

JoVE 54108


 Neuroscience

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Ohm's Law

JoVE 10116

Source: Andrew Duffy, PhD, Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA

This experiment investigates Ohm's law, which relates current, voltage, and resistance.

One goal of the experiment is to become familiar with circuit diagrams and the terminology involved in basic circuits, such as resistor, resistance, current, voltage, and power supply. By the end of the experiment, familiarity is gained with how to wire up a circuit and how to measure both the current passing through a circuit component and the potential difference, or voltage, across it. In a circuit, a battery or power supply provides a voltage measured in volts (V) that makes the charge flow. Other elements in the circuit, such as light bulbs or resistors (which are often just long narrow wires wound into coils) limit the rate at which the charge flows. The rate of flow of the charge is known as current measured in amperes (A), or amps for short, and the degree to which resistors and light bulb filaments limit the flow is known as their resistance measured in ohms (Ω). This experiment involves an exploration of Ohm's law, which relates voltage, current, and resistance. This experiment also explores the difference between a basic circuit component called a resistor, a


 Physics II

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All-electronic Nanosecond-resolved Scanning Tunneling Microscopy: Facilitating the Investigation of Single Dopant Charge Dynamics

1Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 2National Institute for Nanotechnology, National Research Council of Canada, Edmonton, 3Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, 4Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 5Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, 6Joint Attosecond Science Laboratory, University of Ottawa

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JoVE 56861


 JoVE In-Press

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Biosensing Motor Neuron Membrane Potential in Live Zebrafish Embryos

1Department of Medical Biotechnology and Translational Medicine, Università degli Studi di Milano, 2Department of Neuroscience; Department of Cell Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, 3Program in Cellular Neuroscience, Neurodegeneration and Repair, Yale University School of Medicine, 4Department of BioSciences, Università degli Studi di Milano

JoVE 55297


 Developmental Biology

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An Experimental Protocol for Assessing the Performance of New Ultrasound Probes Based on CMUT Technology in Application to Brain Imaging

1Department of Electrical, Computer and Biomedical Engineering, University of Pavia, 2Department of Information Engineering, University of Florence, 3Department of Engineering, Roma Tre University, 4FTMTR&D/SPA, STMicroelectronics, 5Brain Connectivity Center, BCC, Istituto Neurologico Nazionale Fondazione C. Mondino I.R.C.C.S., 6Department of Molecular Medicine - Unit of Pathology, University of Pavia, Foundation IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo

JoVE 55798


 Bioengineering

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Capacitance

JoVE 10296

Source: Yong P. Chen, PhD, Department of Physics & Astronomy, College of Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN

This experiment will use commercial capacitors and a parallel plate capacitor to demonstrate the concept of capacitance. A capacitor stores opposite charges on two conductors, for example two opposite metal plates, leading to a potential difference (voltage drop) between the two conductors. The amount of charge on each conductor is proportional to this voltage drop, with the capacitance as the proportionality factor. If the voltage is changing with time, the current flowing into the capacitor will be proportional to the rate of that change, and again the capacitance is the proportionality factor. The capacitance of the parallel plate capacitor is the product of the dielectric constant with the distance between the plates divided by the area of the plate. This experiment will demonstrate the proportionality with distance by first depositing some charge onto the capacitor and then using a high-impedance voltmeter (electrometer) to monitor the voltage between the plates as the distance is increased. The voltage change will also be monitored with a dielectric material, such as a plastic plate inserted into the space between the metal plates. A capacita


 Physics II

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Whole-cell Patch-clamp Recordings of Isolated Primary Epithelial Cells from the Epididymis

1School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, 2Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 4Shanghai Institute for Advanced Immunochemical Studies, ShanghaiTech University

JoVE 55700


 Developmental Biology

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