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Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of waste water to provide potable and hygiene water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Synthesis and Characterization of Placental Chondroitin Sulfate A (plCSA)-Targeting Lipid-Polymer Nanoparticles

1Laboratory for Reproductive Health, Institute of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), 2Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nanomedicine, CAS Key Lab for Health Informatics, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), 3Department of Chemistry, Guangdong Medical University

JoVE 58209


 Cancer Research

Simple and Effective Administration and Visualization of Microparticles in the Circulatory System of Small Fishes Using Kidney Injection

1Institute of Biology at Irkutsk State University, 2Institute of Biology at Karelian Research Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences, 3Baikal Research Centre, 4Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology, and Research (A*STAR), 5University of Oulu, Optoelectronics and Measurement Techniques Laboratory

JoVE 57491


 Biology

Making Conjugation-induced Fluorescent PEGylated Virus-like Particles by Dibromomaleimide-disulfide Chemistry

1Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Texas at Dallas, 2Undergraduate Biology, University of Texas at Dallas, 3Undergraduate Healthcare Studies, University of Texas at Dallas, 4Departments of Chemistry & Biochemistry and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas

JoVE 57712


 Bioengineering

Optimal Preparation of Formalin Fixed Samples for Peptide Based Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging Workflows

1Mass Spectrometry Core Facility, University of Sydney, 2Proteomics Core Facility, University of Technology Sydney, 3Neuropathology Group, Discipline of Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Sydney, 4Redox Biology Group, Discipline of Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Sydney

JoVE 56778


 Biochemistry

Low Pressure Vapor-assisted Solution Process for Tunable Band Gap Pinhole-free Methylammonium Lead Halide Perovskite Films

1Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, 3Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 4Institute of Fundamental and Frontier Sciences, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, 5Department of Physics, Graduate School of Nanotechnology, University of Trieste, 6TASC Laboratory, IOM-CNR - Istituto Officina dei Materiali, 7Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, 8Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, 9Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

JoVE 55404


 Chemistry

Towards Biomimicking Wood: Fabricated Free-standing Films of Nanocellulose, Lignin, and a Synthetic Polycation

1Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science, Virginia Tech, 2Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute, Virginia Tech, 3Institute for Food Safety and Health, Illinois Institute of Technology- Moffett Campus, 4Wood, Cellulose, and Paper Research Department, University of Guadalajara, 5Department of Sustainable Biomaterials, Virginia Tech, 6Sustainable Nanotechnology Interdisciplinary Graduate Education Program, Virginia Tech

JoVE 51257


 Chemistry

An Injectable and Drug-loaded Supramolecular Hydrogel for Local Catheter Injection into the Pig Heart

1Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Eindhoven University of Technology, 2Department of Cardiology, Division Heart and Lungs, Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands (ICIN), University Medical Center Utrecht

JoVE 52450


 Bioengineering

Automated Gel Size Selection to Improve the Quality of Next-generation Sequencing Libraries Prepared from Environmental Water Samples

1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of British Columbia, 2Coastal Genomics, 3British Columbia Public Health Microbiology and Reference Laboratory

JoVE 52685


 Environment

Atomically Traceable Nanostructure Fabrication

1Zyvex Labs, 2Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, 4Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, 5National Institute of Standards and Technology

JoVE 52900


 Engineering

Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticle Integrated Photo-responsive Liposomes and Measurement of Their Microbubble Cavitation upon Pulse Laser Excitation

1School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 2Division of Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 3NTU-Northwestern Institute of Nanomedicine, Nanyang Technological University

JoVE 53619


 Bioengineering

Removal of Branched and Cyclic Compounds by Urea Adduction for Uk'37 Paleothermometry

JoVE 10160

Source: Laboratory of Jeff Salacup - University of Massachusetts Amherst

As mentioned in previous videos, the product of an organic solvent extraction, a total lipid extract (TLE), is often a complex mixture of hundreds, if not thousands, of different compounds. The researcher is often only interested in a handful of compounds. In the case of our two organic paleothermometers (Uk'37 and MBT/CBT), the interest is in only 6 compounds (2 alkenones and 4 isoprenoidal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers). As discussed in the previous two videos in this series, purification techniques may be applied in order to pare down the number of compounds in an analyzed sample. These techniques may chemically alter the unwanted components (saponification), take advantage of the different compound chemistries (column chromatography), or use the different shapes and sizes of the molecules to include or exclude certain components from the analysis (urea adduction). The atomic structure of different chemicals leads some organic compounds to form long, narrow, straight chains (n-alkanes and alkenones), other organic compounds to form complex cyclic structures, others to form highly-branched structures, and yet others which form both cyclic and branched structures (GDGTs) (Figure 1). The different


 Earth Science

Ion-Exchange Chromatography

JoVE 10269

Source: Laboratory of Dr. B. Jill Venton - University of Virginia

Ion-exchange chromatography is a type of chromatography that separates analytes based on charge. A column is used that is filled with a charged stationary phase on a solid support, called an ion-exchange resin. Strong cation-exchange chromatography preferentially separates out cations by using a negatively-charged resin while strong anion-exchange chromatography preferentially selects out anions by using a positively-charged resin. This type of chromatography is popular for sample preparation, for example in the cleanup of proteins or nucleic acid samples. Ion-exchange chromatography is a two-step process. In the first step, the sample is loaded onto the column in a loading buffer. The binding of the charged sample to the column resin is based on ionic interactions of the resin to attract the sample of the opposite charge. Thus, charged samples of opposite polarity to the resin are strongly bound. Other molecules that are not charged or are of the opposite charge are not bound and are washed through the column. The second step is to elute the analyte that is bound to the resin. This is accomplished with a salt gradient, where the amount of salt in the buffer is slowly increased. Fractions are collected at the end of the column as


 Analytical Chemistry

Intracranial Subarachnoidal Route of Infection for Investigating Roles of Streptococcus suis Biofilms in Meningitis in a Mouse Infection Model

1College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, 2Key Lab of Animal Bacteriology, Ministry of Agriculture, 3OIE Reference Lab for Swine Streptococcosis, 4School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, 5Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses

JoVE 57658


 Immunology and Infection

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