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Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of waste water to provide potable and hygiene water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Automated Gel Size Selection to Improve the Quality of Next-generation Sequencing Libraries Prepared from Environmental Water Samples

1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of British Columbia, 2Coastal Genomics, 3British Columbia Public Health Microbiology and Reference Laboratory

JoVE 52685


Removal of Branched and Cyclic Compounds by Urea Adduction for Uk'37 Paleothermometry

JoVE 10160

Source: Laboratory of Jeff Salacup - University of Massachusetts Amherst

As mentioned in previous videos, the product of an organic solvent extraction, a total lipid extract (TLE), is often a complex mixture of hundreds, if not thousands, of different compounds. The researcher is often only interested in a handful of compounds. In the case of our two organic paleothermometers (Uk'37 and MBT/CBT), the interest is in only 6 compounds (2 alkenones and 4 isoprenoidal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers). As discussed in the previous two videos in this series, purification techniques may be applied in order to pare down the number of compounds in an analyzed sample. These techniques may chemically alter the unwanted components (saponification), take advantage of the different compound chemistries (column chromatography), or use the different shapes and sizes of the molecules to include or exclude certain components from the analysis (urea adduction). The atomic structure of different chemicals leads some organic compounds to form long, narrow, straight chains (n-alkanes and alkenones), other organic compounds to form complex cyclic structures, others to form highly-branched structures, and yet others which form both cyclic and branched structures (GDGTs) (Figure 1). The different

 Earth Science

Making Conjugation-induced Fluorescent PEGylated Virus-like Particles by Dibromomaleimide-disulfide Chemistry

1Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Texas at Dallas, 2Undergraduate Biology, University of Texas at Dallas, 3Undergraduate Healthcare Studies, University of Texas at Dallas, 4Departments of Chemistry & Biochemistry and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 57712

 JoVE In-Press

Optimal Preparation of Formalin Fixed Samples for Peptide Based Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging Workflows

1Mass Spectrometry Core Facility, University of Sydney, 2Proteomics Core Facility, University of Technology Sydney, 3Neuropathology Group, Discipline of Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Sydney, 4Redox Biology Group, Discipline of Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Sydney

JoVE 56778


Ion-Exchange Chromatography

JoVE 10269

Source: Laboratory of Dr. B. Jill Venton - University of Virginia

Ion-exchange chromatography is a type of chromatography that separates analytes based on charge. A column is used that is filled with a charged stationary phase on a solid support, called an ion-exchange resin. Strong cation-exchange chromatography preferentially separates out cations by using a negatively-charged resin while strong anion-exchange chromatography preferentially selects out anions by using a positively-charged resin. This type of chromatography is popular for sample preparation, for example in the cleanup of proteins or nucleic acid samples. Ion-exchange chromatography is a two-step process. In the first step, the sample is loaded onto the column in a loading buffer. The binding of the charged sample to the column resin is based on ionic interactions of the resin to attract the sample of the opposite charge. Thus, charged samples of opposite polarity to the resin are strongly bound. Other molecules that are not charged or are of the opposite charge are not bound and are washed through the column. The second step is to elute the analyte that is bound to the resin. This is accomplished with a salt gradient, where the amount of salt in the buffer is slowly increased. Fractions are collected at the end of the column as

 Analytical Chemistry

Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticle Integrated Photo-responsive Liposomes and Measurement of Their Microbubble Cavitation upon Pulse Laser Excitation

1School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 2Division of Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 3NTU-Northwestern Institute of Nanomedicine, Nanyang Technological University

JoVE 53619


Fabrication of Extracellular Matrix-derived Foams and Microcarriers as Tissue-specific Cell Culture and Delivery Platforms

1Biomedical Engineering Graduate Program, The University of Western Ontario, 2Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario, 3Department of Chemical Engineering, Queen's University, 4Department of Chemical & Biochemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Western Ontario

JoVE 55436


Towards Biomimicking Wood: Fabricated Free-standing Films of Nanocellulose, Lignin, and a Synthetic Polycation

1Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science, Virginia Tech, 2Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute, Virginia Tech, 3Institute for Food Safety and Health, Illinois Institute of Technology- Moffett Campus, 4Wood, Cellulose, and Paper Research Department, University of Guadalajara, 5Department of Sustainable Biomaterials, Virginia Tech, 6Sustainable Nanotechnology Interdisciplinary Graduate Education Program, Virginia Tech

JoVE 51257


Large-Area Scanning Probe Nanolithography Facilitated by Automated Alignment and Its Application to Substrate Fabrication for Cell Culture Studies

1Manchester Institute of Biotechnology & School of Chemistry, University of Manchester, 2School of Engineering, University of Liverpool, 3School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, 4School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56967

 JoVE In-Press

Atomically Traceable Nanostructure Fabrication

1Zyvex Labs, 2Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, 4Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, 5National Institute of Standards and Technology

JoVE 52900


Low Pressure Vapor-assisted Solution Process for Tunable Band Gap Pinhole-free Methylammonium Lead Halide Perovskite Films

1Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, 3Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 4Institute of Fundamental and Frontier Sciences, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, 5Department of Physics, Graduate School of Nanotechnology, University of Trieste, 6TASC Laboratory, IOM-CNR - Istituto Officina dei Materiali, 7Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, 8Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, 9Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

JoVE 55404


An Injectable and Drug-loaded Supramolecular Hydrogel for Local Catheter Injection into the Pig Heart

1Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Eindhoven University of Technology, 2Department of Cardiology, Division Heart and Lungs, Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands (ICIN), University Medical Center Utrecht

JoVE 52450


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