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Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.

Wrist and Hand Examination

JoVE 10242

Source: Robert E. Sallis, MD. Kaiser Permanente, Fontana, California, USA


The wrist is a complex joint made up of 8 carpal bones and their numerous articulations and ligaments. Overlying the wrist are the tendons and muscles of the hand and fingers. The hand is made up of 5 metacarpal bones, and the tendons that run to the hand overlie…

 Physical Examinations III

Ankle Exam

JoVE 10191

Source: Robert E. Sallis, MD. Kaiser Permanente, Fontana, California, USA


The ankle and foot provide the foundation for the body and the stability needed for upright posture and ambulation. Because of its weight-bearing function, the ankle joint is a common site of injury among athletes and in the general population. Ankle injuries occur…

 Physical Examinations III

Foot Exam

JoVE 10192

Source: Robert E. Sallis, MD. Kaiser Permanente, Fontana, California, USA


The foot is a complex structure composed of numerous bones and articulations. It provides flexibility, is the essential contact point needed for ambulation, and is uniquely suited to absorb shock. Because the foot must support the weight of the entire body, it is…

 Physical Examinations III

Motor Units

JoVE 10871

A motor unit consists of two main components: a single efferent motor neuron (i.e., a neuron that carries impulses away from the central nervous system) and all of the muscle fibers it innervates. The motor neuron may innervate multiple muscle fibers, which are single cells, but only one motor neuron innervates a single muscle fiber.

Lower motor neurons are efferent neurons that control skeletal muscle, the most abundant type of muscle in the body. The cell bodies of lower motor neurons are located in the spinal cord or brain stem. Those in the brainstem transmit nerve signals through the cranial nerve, and primarily control muscles in the head and neck. Lower motor neurons originating in the spinal cord send signals along the spinal nerve, and primarily control muscles in the limbs and body trunk. A lower motor neuron fires an action potential that, at once, contract all skeletal muscle cells that the neuron innervates. Thus, motor units are functional units of skeletal muscle. The size of a motor unit, or the number of muscle fibers the lower motor neuron innervates, varies depending on the size of the muscle and the speed and precision the movement requires. Muscles in the eyes and fingers, which require rapid, precise control, are generally controlled by small motor units. In these units, motor neurons connect to a small number of muscle f

 Core: Musculoskeletal System

Development of Recombinant Proteins to Treat Chronic Pain

1Laboratory of Translational Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, 2Department of Rheumatology & Clinical Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, 3Laboratory of Neuroimmunology and Developmental Origins of Disease, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University

JoVE 57071

 Medicine

Kinematics and Ground Reaction Force Determination: A Demonstration Quantifying Locomotor Abilities of Young Adult, Middle-aged, and Geriatric Rats

1CullenWebb Animal Neurology & Ophthalmology Center, Riverview, NB, 2Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3Department of Comparative Biology and Experimental Medicine, University of Calgary, 4Department of Neuroscience, University of Calgary

JoVE 2138

 Neuroscience

An Efficient and Reproducible Protocol for Distraction Osteogenesis in a Rat Model Leading to a Functional Regenerated Femur

1CNRS, ISM, Inst Movement Sci, Aix Marseille Univ, 2Sainte-Marguerite Hospital, Institute for Locomotion, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, APHM, 3Sainte-Marguerite Hospital, Institute for Locomotion, Department of Peadiatric Orthopaedics, APHM, 4Ecole centrale de Marseille, 5Faculté de Pharmacie, Laboratoire de Biochimie, 6Service Central de la Qualité et de l'Information Pharmaceutiques, APHM

JoVE 56433

 Bioengineering

Automated Gait Analysis in Mice with Chronic Constriction Injury

1Department of Physiology and Medical Science, College of Medicine and Brain Research Institute, Chungnam National University, 2KM Fundamental Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine (KIOM), 3Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston

JoVE 56402

 Neuroscience

Semiautomated Longitudinal Microcomputed Tomography-based Quantitative Structural Analysis of a Nude Rat Osteoporosis-related Vertebral Fracture Model

1Skeletal Biotech Laboratory, Hebrew University-Hadassah Faculty of Dental Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 3Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 4Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 5Department of Orthopedics, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

JoVE 55928

 Bioengineering

Computerized Adaptive Testing System of Functional Assessment of Stroke

1School of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, 2Research Center for Psychological and Educational Testing, National Taiwan Normal University, 3Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, 4Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital, 5Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medical and Health Science, Asia University

JoVE 58137

 Behavior

Computerized Dynamic Posturography for Postural Control Assessment in Patients with Intermittent Claudication

1Discipline of Exercise and Sport Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, 2Department of Sport, Health and Exercise Science, University of Hull, 3Academic Vascular Department, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals, 4Department of Vascular Surgery, Addenbrookes Hospital

JoVE 51077

 Medicine

Matrix-assisted Autologous Chondrocyte Transplantation for Remodeling and Repair of Chondral Defects in a Rabbit Model

1Department of Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, 2Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, 3Institute of Experimental Oncology and Therapy Research, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, 4Department of Radiology, Uniklinik Köln

JoVE 4422

 Medicine

Bioelectric Analyses of an Osseointegrated Intelligent Implant Design System for Amputees

1Department of Veteran Affairs, 2Department of Bioengineering, University of Utah, 3Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute , University of Utah, 4Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Utah, 5Department of Orthopaedics, University of Utah

JoVE 1237

 Biology
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