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Weight Gain: Increase in Body weight over existing weight.

The Sympathetic Nervous System

JoVE 10840

The sympathetic nervous system—one of the two major divisions of the autonomic nervous system—is activated in times of stress. It prepares the body to meet the challenges of a demanding circumstance while inhibiting essential body functions—such as digestion—that are a lower priority at the moment.

As a student, you may have had the experience of walking into class and finding a surprise exam that you were not expecting. In the moment of realization, you may sense your gut tighten, your mouth goes dry, and your heart starts to race all of a sudden. These are signs of the sympathetic system taking over in preparation to react. While you may not be in immediate danger, the system has evolved to facilitate immediate reaction to stress or threats: blood is directed away from the digestive system and skin to increase energy supplies to muscles. Furthermore, the heart rate, and blood flow increase, and pupils dilate to maximize visual perception. At the same time, the adrenal gland releases epinephrine into the circulatory system. Your body is now primed to take action, whether that means to swiftly flee from danger or fight whatever threat may be at hand. The sympathetic nervous system can be activated by various parts of the brain, with the hypothalamus playing a particularly important role. Sympathetic instructions from the central

 Core: Nervous System

Nature and Nurture

JoVE 10781

Many human characteristics, like height, are shaped by both nature—in other words, by our genes—and by nurture, or our environment. For example, chronic stress during childhood inhibits the production of growth hormones and consequently reduces bone growth and height. Scientists estimate that 70-90% of variation in height is due to genetic differences among individuals, and 10-30% of variation in height is due to differences in the environments that individuals experience, such as differences in diet. Many other phenotypes are similarly influenced by both genes and environments. Some of these phenotypes arise later in life, like cancer and other diseases. Hundreds of genes that influence height in humans have been identified. One study found that the most important factor explaining current differences in stature among men in different nations was the ratio between the intake of high-quality animal protein and low-quality proteins from grain and vegetables during childhood. The tallest early men are believed to be Upper Paleolithic hunters from the Gravettian culture, which thrived in Europe 34,000 to 26,000 years ago. Their stature (ranging from 5’10” to 6’2”) was due in part to a low population density and a diet abundant in high-quality animal protein. In modern times, increased stature is attributed

 Core: Classical and Modern Genetics

Fundamentals of Breeding and Weaning

JoVE 10293

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


Millions of mice and rats are bred for use in biomedical research each year. Worldwide, there are several large commercial breeding facilities that supply mice to research laboratories, but many facilities choose to also breed mice and…

 Lab Animal Research

Vinyl Chloride and High-Fat Diet as a Model of Environment and Obesity Interaction

1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville, 2Hepatobiology and Toxicology Program, University of Louisville, 3Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, West Virginia University, 4Center for Inhalation Toxicology, West Virginia University, 5Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh, 6Pittsburgh Liver Research Center, University of Pittsburgh, 7Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 60351

 JoVE In-Press

Assessment of the Metabolic Effects of Isocaloric 2:1 Intermittent Fasting in Mice

1University of Ottawa Heart Institute, 2Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, 3Translational Medicine Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, 4Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, 5Banting and Best Diabetes Centre, University of Toronto

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 60174

 JoVE In-Press

Ex Vivo Oculomotor Slice Culture from Embryonic GFP-Expressing Mice for Time-Lapse Imaging of Oculomotor Nerve Outgrowth

1Department of Ophthalmology, Boston Children's Hospital, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, 3F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center, Boston Children's Hospital, 4Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital, 5Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, 6Howard Hughes Medical Institute

JoVE 59911

 Neuroscience

An Advanced Murine Model for Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in Association with Type 2 Diabetes

1Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 2Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), 3Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies (BCRT), Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 4DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), 5Institute of Medical Immunology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 6Julius Wolff Institute (JWI) and Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

JoVE 59470

 Immunology and Infection

A Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Technique for Inducing Post-stroke Depression in Rats

1Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Soroka University Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Soroka University Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, 3Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology, Ecology, and Medicine, Oles Honchar Dnipro National University

JoVE 58875

 Behavior

Laser-assisted Lentiviral Gene Delivery to Mouse Fertilized Eggs

1Neurobiology Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 2Comparative Medicine Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 3Reproductive and Developmental Biology Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 4Signal Transduction Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

JoVE 58327

 Biology

Lentiviral Vector-mediated Gene Therapy of Hepatocytes Ex Vivo for Autologous Transplantation in Swine

1Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 2Midwest Fetal Care Center, Children's Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota, 3Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins, 4Pediatric Surgical Associates

JoVE 58399

 Medicine

A Metadata Extraction Approach for Clinical Case Reports to Enable Advanced Understanding of Biomedical Concepts

1The NIH BD2K Center of Excellence in Biomedical Computing, University of California, Los Angeles, 2Department of Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles, 3Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of California, Los Angeles, 4Department of Cardiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 5Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, 6Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 7Scalable Analytics Institute (ScAi), University of California, Los Angeles, 8Department of Bioinformatics, University of California, Los Angeles, 9Department of Computer Science, University of California, Los Angeles

JoVE 58392

 Medicine

Induction of Nephrotic Syndrome in Mice by Retrobulbar Injection of Doxorubicin and Prevention of Volume Retention by Sustained Release Aprotinin

1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology, Vascular Disease, Nephrology and Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital Tübingen, 2Institute of Diabetes Research and Metabolic Diseases (IDM) of the Helmholtz Center Munich, University Tübingen, 3German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), University Tübingen

JoVE 57642

 Medicine

Intraperitoneal Glucose Tolerance Test, Measurement of Lung Function, and Fixation of the Lung to Study the Impact of Obesity and Impaired Metabolism on Pulmonary Outcomes

1Translational Experimental Pediatrics, Experimental Pulmonology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Cologne, 2Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Cologne, 3Division of Experimental Pediatrics and Metabolism, University Children's Hospital, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf

JoVE 56685

 Immunology and Infection

An Experimental Model of Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rabbit: Methodological Considerations, Development, and Assessment

1CIBERCV, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 2Department of Physiology, Universitat de València, 3INCLIVA, 4Department of Electronic Engineering, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, 5UCIM, Universitat de València, 6Department of Physiotherapy, Universitat de València

JoVE 57117

 Medicine

ADSC-sheet Transplantation to Prevent Stricture after Extended Esophageal Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection

1Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Université Paris Descartes Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2Department of Gastroenterology, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, 3UMR-S970, Université Paris Descartes Sorbonne Paris Cité, 4Department of Pathology, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, 5Department of Radiology, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou

JoVE 55018

 Medicine

Techniques of Sleeve Gastrectomy and Modified Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass in Mice

1l'Institut du Thorax, INSERM, CNRS, UNIV Nantes, 2CHU Nantes, Institut des Maladies de l'Appareil Digestif, INSERM U913, 3l'Institut du Thorax, INSERM, CNRS, UNIV Nantes, CHU Nantes, 4Service de Clinique Chirurgicale Digestive et Endocrinienne, CHU de Nantes

JoVE 54905

 Medicine

A RAPID Method for Blood Processing to Increase the Yield of Plasma Peptide Levels in Human Blood

1Charité Center for Internal Medicine and Dermatology, Division General Internal and Psychosomatic Medicine, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Martin-Luther Hospital, Academic Teaching Institution of Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 3Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Molecular Cancer Research Center (MKFZ), Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin

JoVE 53959

 Immunology and Infection

Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Quantification of Social Behavior in Adult Rats

1Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, 2Department of Neurosciences, University of New Mexico, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of New Mexico, 4Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge

JoVE 52407

 Behavior
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