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World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.

What is a Nervous System?

JoVE 10838

The nervous system is the collection of specialized cells responsible for maintaining an organism’s internal environment and coordinating the interaction of an organism with the external world—from the control of essential functions such as heart rate and breathing to the movement needed to escape danger.

The vertebrate nervous system is divided into two major parts: the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS includes the brain, spinal cord, and retina—the sensory tissue of the visual system. The PNS contains the sensory receptor cells for all of the other sensory systems—such as the touch receptors in the skin—as well as the nerves that carry information between the CNS and the rest of the body. Additionally, part of both the CNS and PNS contribute to the autonomic nervous system (also known as the visceral motor system). The autonomic nervous system controls smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands that govern involuntary actions, such as digestion. The vertebrate brain is primarily divided into the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. The cerebrum is the largest, most anterior part of the brain that is divided into left and right hemispheres. Each hemisphere is further divided into four lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal. The outermost layer of the cerebrum is called

 Core: Nervous System

Vaccinations

JoVE 10903

Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material from pathogens to confer immunity against a specific microorganism. Vaccination primes the immune system to recognize and mount an immune response faster and more effectively if the real pathogen is encountered. Vaccinations are one of the most efficient ways to protect both individual humans and the general public from disease. A growing anti-vaccination skepticism risks the successes of vaccination programs that helped reduce and, in some instances, eradicate fatal diseases. Vaccines can be administered via oral and intranasal routes, as well as by injection into the muscle (intramuscular), the fat layer under the skin (subcutaneous), or the skin (intradermal). Vaccines contain antigens derived from a specific pathogen. Those containing “dead” antigens, which are intact but unable to replicate, are referred to as inactive vaccines. By contrast, subunit vaccines contain only parts of the pathogen. Some vaccines contain the live pathogen in a weakened (attenuated) form. An attenuated pathogen stimulates the immune system without causing severe disease. Vaccines often contain adjuvants, chemicals that enhance the immune response against the pathogen. When a vaccine is administered, antigen-presenting immune cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells or macrophages, engulf the antigen from the v

 Core: Immune System

VirWaTest, A Point-of-Use Method for the Detection of Viruses in Water Samples

1Laboratory of Viruses Contaminants of Water and Food (VIRCONT), Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Statistics, Section of Microbiology, Virology and Biotechnology, University of Barcelona, 2Grupo de Investigación Biodiversidad, Medio Ambiente y Salud (BIOMAS), Facultad de Ingenierías y Ciencias Agropecuarias (FICA), Ingeniería en Biotecnología, Universidad de las Américas, 3Municipal Laboratory - Waters of Mataró, 4GenIUL

JoVE 59463

 Immunology and Infection

An Affordable HIV-1 Drug Resistance Monitoring Method for Resource Limited Settings

1Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, 2Unit D11, Jembi Health Systems, 3Academic Medical Center, Department of Global Health, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD), University of Amsterdam, 4Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Centre for AIDS Research, Stanford Medical School

JoVE 51242

 Medicine

Processing of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid and Matched Blood for Alveolar Macrophage and CD4+ T-cell Immunophenotyping and HIV Reservoir Assessment

1Research Institute McGill University Health Centre, 2Department of Biological Sciences, Université de Québec à Montréal, 3Department of Microbiology & Immunology, McGill University, 4Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, McGill University, 5Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, 6Département de microbiologie, infectiologie et immunologie, Université de Montréal

JoVE 59427

 Immunology and Infection

Laser Capture Microdissection of Highly Pure Trabecular Meshwork from Mouse Eyes for Gene Expression Analysis

1Immunity, Inflammation, and Disease Laboratory, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, 2Cellular and Molecular Pathology Branch, Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, 3Integrated Laboratory Systems Inc., 4Experimental Pathology Laboratories Inc.

JoVE 57576

 Biology

A Tuberculosis Molecular Bacterial Load Assay (TB-MBLA)

1Division of Infection and Global Health, School of Medicine, University of St Andrews, 2National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR)-Mbeya Medical Research Centre, 3Instituto Nacional de Saúde (INS), Ministério da Saúde, 4Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health & Comparative Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary & Life Sciences, University of Glasgow

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 60460

 JoVE In-Press

Inducing Meningococcal Meningitis Serogroup C in Mice via Intracisternal Delivery

1Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, 2Department of Science and Technology, Sannio University, 3CEINGE – Advanced Biotechnology

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 60047

 JoVE In-Press

Impact of High-intensity Interval Exercise and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Exercise on the Cardiac Troponin T Level at an Early Stage of Training

1Physical Education College, Hebei Normal University, 2Hebei Provincial Key Lab of Measurement and Evaluation in Human Movement and Bio-Information, 3School of Health Sciences and Sports, Macao Polytechnic Institute, 4Faculty of Education, University of Macau

JoVE 60252

 Behavior

Integrating Augmented Reality Tools in Breast Cancer Related Lymphedema Prognostication and Diagnosis

1Department of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Piedmont "A. Avogadro", 2Division of Pathology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 3Division of Breast Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 4Division of Medical Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 5Division of Pathology, Maggiore della Carità Hospital, 6Department of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Piedmont "A. Avogadro", 7Department of Biomedical, Surgical, and Dental Sciences, University of Milan

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 60093

 JoVE In-Press

Home-Based Prescribed Pulmonary Exercise in Patients with Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

1School of Rehabilitation Science, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, Shanghai Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 3Department of Sports Medicine, Shanghai University of Sport, 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine

JoVE 59765

 Behavior

Design of Cecal Ligation and Puncture and Intranasal Infection Dual Model of Sepsis-Induced Immunosuppression

1West China School of Basic Medical Sciences & Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of North Dakota, 3State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Institute of Surgery Research, Daping Hospital, Army Medical University

JoVE 59386

 Immunology and Infection

Use of the Invertebrate Galleria mellonella as an Infection Model to Study the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex

1Section of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Allergy, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, 2Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore, 3MRC Centre for Molecular Bacteriology and Infection, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London

JoVE 59703

 Immunology and Infection

A Chronic Immobilization Stress Protocol for Inducing Depression-Like Behavior in Mice

1Department of Anatomy and Convergence Medical Sciences, Institute of Health Sciences, Bio Anti-aging Medical Research Center, Gyeongsang National University Medical School, 2Department of Biological Sciences, Pusan National University, 3Department of Physiology and Convergence Medical Sciences, Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University Medical School

JoVE 59546

 Behavior
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