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World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.

An Introduction to the Chick: Gallus gallus domesticus

JoVE 5153

The chicken embryo (Gallus gallus domesticus) is an extremely valuable model organism for research in developmental biology, in part because most of their development takes place within an egg that is incubated outside of the mother. As a result, early developmental stages can be accessed, visualized and manipulated by simply creating a small hole in the eggshell. Since billions of chickens are raised worldwide for meat and egg production, scientists can easily and economically acquire large numbers of fertilized eggs throughout the year. Furthermore, chickens share significant genetic conservation with humans, so the genetic mechanisms that have been found to regulate chicken development are also relevant to our own biology. This video focuses on introducing the domesticated chicken as a scientific model. The discussion begins with a review of chicken phylogeny, revealing the features that make them amniotes, like other birds, reptiles, and mammals. Highlights from the millennia of chicken research will be presented, ranging from Aristotle’s postulates about the function of extra-embryonic membranes to more recent, Nobel-prize winning discoveries in neuroscience. Additionally, some current examples of studies performed in chicken embryos will be provided, such as in vivo tracking of cell movements during development and the recruitment of


 Biology II

Lead Analysis of Soil Using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

JoVE 10021

Source: Laboratories of Margaret Workman and Kimberly Frye - Depaul University

Lead occurs naturally in soil, in levels ranging from 10-50 ppm. However, with the widespread use of lead in paint and gasoline in addition to contamination by industry, urban soils often have concentrations of lead significantly greater than background levels – up to 10,000 ppm in some places. Ongoing problems arise from the fact that lead does not biodegrade, and instead remains in the soil. Serious health risks are associated with lead poisoning, where children are particularly at risk. Millions of children in the U.S. are exposed to soil containing lead. This exposure can cause developmental and behavioral problems in children. These problems include learning disabilities, inattention, delayed growth, and brain damage. The Environmental Protection Agency has set a standard for lead in soil at 400 ppm for play areas and 1,200 ppm for non-play areas. Lead is also of concern in soil, when it’s used for gardening. Plants take up lead from the soil. Therefore, vegetables or herbs grown in contaminated soil can lead to lead poisoning. In addition, contaminated soil particles can be breathed in while gardening or brought into the house on clothing and footwear. It is recommended that s


 Environmental Science

Effects of Thinking Abstractly or Concretely on Self-control

JoVE 10332

Source: Diego Reinero & Jay Van Bavel—New York University

Whether it's refraining from having a second serving of ice cream, studying instead of attending a fun party, or deciding to put money away in a savings account, sacrificing short-term outcomes in favor of long-term outcomes (i.e., delaying gratification) is a central tenant of self-control. When people apply self control, they engage numerous psychological processes to help them achieve their goal. These self-regulatory processes have been studied by psychologists for decades. A decision to resist tempting short-term rewards can depend on an individual's mindset and focus. Psychologists have found evidence that how someone construes an event can influence how they make judgments and decisions, a theory called Construal Level Theory (CLT). In particular, CLT asserts that the same object or event can be represented at multiple levels of abstractness or psychological distance, most commonly either a high-(abstract/distant) or low-(concrete/near) level of construal.1 Thinking about a situation with high-level construal entails emphasizing the global, superordinate, central features of an object or event (i.e,, zooming out and looking at the big picture), whereas thinking about a situation wi


 Social Psychology

Persuasion: Motivational Factors Influencing Attitude Change

JoVE 10330

Source: William Brady & Jay Van Bavel—New York University

Decades of social psychological research sought to understand a fundamental question that pervades our social life including politics, marketing and public health; namely, how are people persuaded to change their attitudes towards an idea, person, or object? Traditional work found that there are key factors that influence whether persuasion is successful or not including the source of the persuasive message ("source"), and the argument content of the message ("content"). For example, expert sources and messages with sound arguments are typically more persuasive. However, as more studies were conducted, conflicting findings began to arise in the field: some studies found that expert sources and good arguments were not always required for successful persuasion.In the 1980's, psychologists Richard Petty, John Cacioppo and their colleagues proposed a model to account for the mixed findings in studies on persuasion.1,2 They proposed the Elaboration Likelihood Model of persuasion, which stated that persuasion occurs via two routes: a central route or a peripheral route. When persuasive messages are processed via the central route, people engage in careful thinking about the messages,


 Social Psychology

An Introduction to Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

JoVE 5213

Cellular and molecular neuroscience is one of the newest and fastest growing subdisciplines in neuroscience. By investigating the influences of genes, signaling molecules, and cellular morphology, researchers in this field uncover crucial insights into normal brain development and function, as well as the root causes of many pathological conditions.

This video introduction to the fascinating world of cellular and molecular neuroscience begins with a timeline of landmark studies, from the discovery of DNA in 1953 to more recent breakthroughs like the cloning of ion channels. Next, key questions in the field are introduced, such as how genes influence neuron activity and how the nervous system is modified by experience. This is followed by brief descriptions of some prominent methods used to analyze genetic material in neurons, manipulate expression of genes, and visualize neurons and their parts. Finally, several applications of molecular and cellular neuroscience are presented to demonstrate how cellular and molecular approaches can be used to profile neuron populations and explore their functions.


 Neuroscience

Placebos in Research

JoVE 10032

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University

Clinical research focuses on the efficacy of treatments for addressing disorders and illnesses. A challenge with this type of research is that participants often have pre-existing beliefs about the treatment, particularly expectations that the treatment will work. Though it has been practiced around the world for centuries, yoga is a relatively recent fitness craze in the United States with a wide range of alleged benefits, including the belief that it improves one’s creativity. However, it is not always clear whether yoga is actually creating the benefits, like improved creativity, or the yoga practitioner’s expectations are really the cause. This video demonstrates a two-group design that examines whether a person who believes he or she is doing yoga (but in reality is not) experiences similar benefits to a person who actually does yoga. Specifically, this study looks at whether there is a placebo effect such that merely believing you are doing yoga benefits creativity.  Psychological studies often use higher sample sizes than studies in other sciences. A large number of participants help


 Experimental Psychology

Construction of a Low-cost Mobile Incubator for Field and Laboratory Use

1Department of Sanitation, Water & Solid Waste for Development, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag), 2Department of Environmental Microbiology, Eawag, 3Department of Environmental Social Sciences, Eawag, 4Department of Urban Water Management, Eawag

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58443


 JoVE In-Press

Using GIS to Investigate Urban Forestry

JoVE 10075

Source: Laboratories of Margaret Workman and Kimberly Frye - Depaul University

Urban forests broadly include urban parks, street trees, landscaped boulevards, public gardens, river and coastal promenades, greenways, river corridors, wetlands, nature preserves, natural areas, shelterbelts of trees, and working trees at industrial brownfield sites. The history of urban trees begins with trees as landscape embellishment. Today, urban trees are seen as essential components of city infrastructure and critical to human life as food, housing, and other public utilities. Urban trees are now valued for the ecosystem services they provide (e.g., preventing erosion, air pollutant removal, oxygen, shade, etc.). Yet, to efficiently make use of these benefits, trees must reach maturity, as leaf number and size directly affect a tree’s ability to provide ecosystem services. Urban forestry has had to develop its own forestry methods to address the needs and challenges unique to urban trees as compared to their woodland counterparts. The following excerpt from the USDA Forest Service illustrates the urban tree perspective and policies of federal government: Urban forests are dynamic ecosystems that provide needed environmental services by cleanin


 Environmental Science

Blood Pressure Measurement

JoVE 10083

Source: Meghan Fashjian, ACNP-BC, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston MA

The term blood pressure (BP) describes lateral pressures produced by blood upon the vessel walls. BP is a vital sign obtained routinely in hospital and outpatient settings, and is one of the most common medical assessments performed around the world. It can be determined directly with the intra-arterial catheter or by indirect method, which is a non-invasive, safe, easily reproducible, and thus most used technique. One of the most important applications of BP measurements is the screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of hypertension, a condition that affects almost one third of the U.S. adult population and is one of the leading causes of the cardiovascular disease. BP can be measured automatically by oscillometry or manually by auscultation utilizing a sphygmomanometer, a device with an inflatable cuff to collapse the artery and a manometer to measure the pressure. Determination of the pulse-obliterating pressure by palpation is done prior to auscultation to give a rough estimate of the target systolic pressure. Next, the examiner places a stethoscope over the brachial artery of the patient, inflates the cuff above the expected systolic pressure, and then auscultates while deflating the cuff and o


 Physical Examinations I

Efficient Gene Delivery into Multiple CNS Territories Using In Utero Electroporation

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, 2Department of Medical Genetics, Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary

JoVE 2957


 Neuroscience

The Attentional Blink

JoVE 10211

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

In order for recognition of a certain stimulus to take place, visual attention needs to be directed towards said stimulus. To the earliest parts of the visual system, objects are not objects, they are collections of visual features-lines, corners, changes in texture, color, and light. Attention is the resource that is necessary for later processing in order to recognize what a given bundle of features adds up to. This makes attention a central focus of research. One especially important set of questions concerns how people sustain attention, that is, the extent to which they can continuously maintain a focus of attention from moment-to-moment. It is now known that sustained attention takes great effort. When attention needs to be focused very rapidly on something that is moving or changing very quickly, the effort involved causes a momentary lapse in attention once it is disengaged. This kind of lapse in attention is called an attentional blink. It is like the brain blinks for a moment, shutting down attention for a rest. Stimuli that appear during an attentional blink will not be perceived. In 1992, a group of researchers devised a paradigm to study the attentional blink, and the paradigm has come to be known by the same nam


 Sensation and Perception

Flow Cytometric Detection of Newly-Formed Breast Cancer Stem Cell-like Cells After Apoptosis Reversal

1School of Life Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, 3Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine, Ministry of Education, Chinese University of Hong Kong, 4Centre for Novel Biomaterials, Chinese University of Hong Kong

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58642


 JoVE In-Press

Evaluation of Biomarkers in Glioma by Immunohistochemistry on Paraffin-Embedded 3D Glioma Neurosphere Cultures

1Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan Medical School, 2Department of Cell & Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, 3INIBIOLP, Histology B-Pathology B, School of Medicine, UNLP

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58931


 JoVE In-Press

Chronic Implantation of Whole-cortical Electrocorticographic Array in the Common Marmoset

1Laboratory for Molecular Analysis of Higher Brain Function, RIKEN Center for Brain Science, 2Laboratory for Marmoset Neural Architecture, RIKEN Center for Brain Science, 3Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 4Department of Ultrastructural Research, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58980


 JoVE In-Press

The Endoscope-Assisted Minimally Invasive Retro-Sigmoid Approach (EAMIRSA): A Combination of Techniques for Improving Middle Skull Base Surgery

1Permanent Temporal Bone Dissection Laboratory, University of Perugia, 2Otolaryngology Department, Meyer Children Hospital, 3Highland Instruments, 4Otolaryngology Department, Cochlear Implant Unit, Santobono Children Hospital, 5Otolaryngology Department, Ospedale Civile of Mantua

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58522


 JoVE In-Press

Measurement of Ion Concentration in the Unstirred Boundary Layer with Open Patch-Clamp Pipette: Implications in Control of Ion Channels by Fluid Flow

1Department of Physiology, KU Open Innovation Center, Research Institute of Medical Science, Konkuk University School of Medicine, 2Department of Emergency Medical Services, Eulji University, 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58228


 JoVE In-Press

Measuring and Interpreting Oxygen Consumption Rates in Whole Fly Head Segments

1Munich Center of Integrated Protein Science and Biomedical Center, Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich, 2Laboratory for Metabolism and Epigenetics in Aging, Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), 3German Mouse Clinic, Helmholtz Zentrum Munich, German Research Center for Environment and Health (GmbH), 4German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), 5Chair of Experimental Genetics, School of Life Science Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 6Laboratory for Metabolism and Epigenetics in Brain Aging, Institute of Neuroregeneration & Neurorehabilitation of Qingdao University, 7Molecular Biology Division, Biomedical Center, Faculty of Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58601


 JoVE In-Press

Analyzing Neural Activity and Connectivity Using Intracranial EEG Data with SPM Software

1Kokoro Research Center, Kyoto University, 2Brain Activity Imaging Center, Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International, 3Department of Neurodevelopmental Psychiatry, Habilitation and Rehabilitation, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 4National Epilepsy Center, 5Shizuoka Institute of Epilepsy and Neurological Disorders, 6Department of System Neuroscience, Sapporo Medical University, 7Faculty of Human Health Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58187


 JoVE In-Press

Effectiveness of the Air Stripping in Two Salmonid Fish, Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) and Brown Trout (Salmo Trutta Morpha fario)

1Department of Gamete and Embryo Biology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Science, 2Department of Salmonid Fish Research, The Stanisław Sakowicz Inland Fisheries Institute

JoVE 56894


 Developmental Biology

Evaluation of the Feasibility, Safety, and Accuracy of an Intraoperative High-intensity Focused Ultrasound Device for Treating Liver Metastases

1Department of Surgical Oncology, Centre Léon Bérard, 2Applications des ultrasons à la thérapie (LabTAU), Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (INSERM), Centre Léon Bérard, Université Lyon 1, Université Lyon, 3Biostatistics and Treatment Evaluation Unit, Centre Léon Bérard

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 57964


 JoVE In-Press

A Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Assay for Rapid Identification of Bemisia tabaci

1Department of Method Development and Analytics, Agroscope, 2Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, 3University of Basel, 4Swiss Federal Plant Protection Service, Federal Office for Agriculture, 5OptiGene Limited, 6Fera Science Limited, 7School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Newcastle University, 8Department of Plants and Plant Products, Agroscope

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58502


 JoVE In-Press

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