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Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.

Multimodal Quantitative Phase Imaging with Digital Holographic Microscopy Accurately Assesses Intestinal Inflammation and Epithelial Wound Healing

1Department of Medicine B, University Hospital Münster, 2Institute of Palliative Care, University Hospital Münster, 3Biomedical Technology Center, University of Münster, 4Department of Gastroenterology, Klinikum Bielefeld

JoVE 54460

 Medicine

Inflammation

JoVE 10902

In response to tissue injury and infection, mast cells initiate inflammation. Mast cells release chemicals that increase the permeability of adjacent blood capillaries and attract additional immune cells to the wound or site of infection. Neutrophils are phagocytic leukocytes that exit the bloodstream and engulf invading microbes. Blood clotting platelets seal the wound and fibers create a scaffold for wound healing. Macrophages engulf aging neutrophils to end the acute inflammatory response. Tissue injury and infection are the primary causes of acute inflammation. Inflammation protects the body by eliminating the cause of tissue injury and initiating the removal of cell debris resulting from the initial damage and related immune cell activity. Inflammation involves mediators of both the innate and adaptive immune system. Proper regulation of inflammation is crucial to clear the pathogen and remove cell debris without overly damaging healthy tissue in the process. If inflammatory processes are not properly regulated, chronic inflammation can arise that is often fatal. Mast cells are the first to respond to tissue injury, as they are primarily located in areas that have contact with the exterior: the skin, gut, and airways. Mast cells have an arsenal of receptors on their cell surface and can hence be activated by a wide variety of stimuli, such as mi

 Core: Immune System

Effects of Allogeneic Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) on the Healing Process of Sectioned Achilles Tendons of Rats: A Methodological Description

1Experimental Surgery, GIGA-R & Credec, University of Liège, 2Laboratory of Connective Tissues Biology, GIGA-R, University of Liège, 3Department Argenco, University of Liège, 4Department of Clinical Biology, University Hospital of Liège, University of Liège, 5Physical Medicine and Sport Traumatology Department, FIFA Medical Center of Excellence, University Hospital of Liège, University of Liège

JoVE 55759

 Medicine

Paracrine Signaling

JoVE 10716

Paracrine signaling allows cells to communicate with their immediate neighbors via secretion of signaling molecules. The signal only triggers a response in nearby target cells as the signal molecules degrade quickly or are inactivated by nearby cells if not taken up. Prominent examples of paracrine signaling include nitric oxide signaling in blood vessels, synaptic signaling of neurons, the blood clotting system, tissue repair/wound healing, and local allergic skin reactions. One of the essential paracrine signaling molecules is the gas nitric oxide (NO). Nitric oxide is produced by a family of enzymes known as nitric oxide synthases. Blood vessels contain several layers of cells. The innermost layer of cells is the endothelium. Endothelial cells have nitric oxide synthase, which produces nitric oxide that diffuses in all directions. The nitric oxide that reaches the blood does not contribute to signaling but immediately reacts with biochemicals, such as hemoglobin. Nitric oxide molecules that diffuse in the opposite direction, towards the next layer of the blood vessel, participate in some important signaling. The layer just exterior to the endothelium is made up of smooth muscle cells. The function of smooth muscle cells is to contract. When these cells contract, they clamp down on the blood vessel, narrowing its diameter and consequently rais

 Core: Cell Signaling

An Introduction to Cell Motility and Migration

JoVE 5643

Cell motility and migration play important roles in both normal biology and in disease. On one hand, migration allows cells to generate complex tissues and organs during development, but on the other hand, the same mechanisms are used by tumor cells to move and spread in a process known as cancer metastasis. One of the primary cellular machineries that make cell movement…

 Cell Biology

Overview of Biomaterials

JoVE 5797

Biomaterials are materials engineered to interact favorably with biological organisms or molecules. These materials can be derived from or produced by an organism, or can even be a synthesized polymer. Engineers use these novel materials in a wide range of applications, such as tissue engineering, biosensing and drug delivery.


This video…

 Bioengineering

Drosophila Development and Reproduction

JoVE 5093

One of the many reasons that make Drosophila an extremely valuable organism is that the molecular, cellular, and genetic foundations of development are highly conserved between flies and higher eukaryotes such as humans. Drosophila progress through several developmental stages in a process known as the life cycle and each stage provides a unique platform for developmental…

 Biology I

Tissues

JoVE 10696

Cells with similar structure and function are grouped into tissues. A group of tissues with a specialized function is called an organ. There are four main types of tissue in vertebrates: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous.

Epithelial tissue consists of thin sheets of cells and includes the skin and the linings of internal organs and body cavities. Epithelial cells are tightly packed, providing a barrier against injury, infection, and water loss. Epithelial tissue can be a single layer called simple epithelium, or multiple layers called stratified epithelium. In stratified epithelium, such as the skin, the outer cells—which are subject to damage—are replaced through the division of cells underneath. Epithelial cells have a variety of shapes, including squamous (flattened), cuboid, and columnar. Some epithelial tissues absorb or secrete substances, such as the lining of the intestines. Connective tissue is composed of cells within an extracellular matrix and includes loose connective tissue, fibrous connective tissue, adipose (fat) tissue, cartilage, bone, and blood. Although the characteristics of connective tissue vary greatly, their general function is to support and attach multiple tissues. For example, tendons are made of fibrous connective tissue and attach muscle to bone. Blood transports oxygen, nutrients and waste produ

 Core: Cell Structure and Function

Overview of Bioprocess Engineering

JoVE 5791

Bioprocessing is a method that uses living organisms to produce a desired target product. Often, bioprocessing refers to the use of bioreactors to produce protein products from genetically engineered organisms. This field is responsible for the large-scale manufacture of biotherapeutics; drugs that have become essential to improving the quality of life for many with…

 Bioengineering

Tissue Regeneration with Somatic Stem Cells

JoVE 5339

Somatic or adult stem cells, like embryonic stem cells, are capable of self-renewal but demonstrate a restricted differentiation potential. Nonetheless, these cells are crucial to homeostatic processes and play an important role in tissue repair. By studying and manipulating this cell population, scientist may be able to develop new regenerative therapies for injuries and diseases.


 Developmental Biology

Adult Mouse Digit Amputation and Regeneration: A Simple Model to Investigate Mammalian Blastema Formation and Intramembranous Ossification

1Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, 2Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, 3Department of Neurosurgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center

JoVE 59749

 Developmental Biology

A Method to Define the Effects of Environmental Enrichment on Colon Microbiome Biodiversity in a Mouse Colon Tumor Model

1Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah, 2Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah

JoVE 57182

 Cancer Research

Measurement of Extracellular Ion Fluxes Using the Ion-selective Self-referencing Microelectrode Technique

1Department of Dermatology, Institute for Regenerative Cures, University of California, Davis, 2Departamento de Biologia, Centro de Biologia Molecular e Ambiental, Universidade do Minho, 3Department of Neurology and Center for Neuroscience, University of California, Davis Imaging of Dementia and Aging Laboratory, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Institute for Regenerative Cures, University of California, Davis

JoVE 52782

 Biology

Preclinical Model of Hind Limb Ischemia in Diabetic Rabbits

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 2Division of Cardiology, University of Texas McGovern Medical School, 3Center for Laboratory Animal Medicine and Care, UT Health Science Center at Houston, 4Memorial Herman Heart and Vascular Center, Texas Medical Center, 5Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, 6The Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, University of Texas at Austin, 7Institute for Biomaterials, Drug Delivery and Regenerative Medicine, University of Texas at Austin

JoVE 58964

 Medicine

Bovine Mammary Gland Biopsy Techniques

1National Animal Nutrition Program, a National Research Support Project (NRSP-9), Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Kentucky, 2School of Performing Arts, Virginia Tech, 3Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, The Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, 4Department of Dairy Science, Virginia Tech, 5Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, 6School of Visual Arts, Virginia Tech

JoVE 58602

 Biology

Use of Rabbit Eyes in Pharmacokinetic Studies of Intraocular Drugs

1Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, 2Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Hanyang University Hospital, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, 5Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Seoul National University Hospital, 6Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital

JoVE 53878

 Medicine

Induction of Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transitions in Sarcoma Cells

1Department of Medicine, Duke University, 2Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, 3Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University, 4Solid Tumor Program and the Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, 5Duke University Medical Center

JoVE 55520

 Developmental Biology

An Enzyme- and Serum-free Neural Stem Cell Culture Model for EMT Investigation Suited for Drug Discovery

1Dept. of Biomedicine, Pharmacenter, University of Basel, 2Molecular Signalling and Gene Therapy, Narayana Nethralaya Foundation, Narayana Health City, 3Brain Ischemia and Regeneration, Department of Biomedicine, University Hospital Basel, 4Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum Idar-Oberstein, 5Department of Neurosurgery and Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University, 6Department of Neurology, Laboratory of Molecular Neuro Oncology, University Hospital of Zurich

JoVE 54018

 Developmental Biology
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