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Yolk Sac: The first of four extra-embryonic membranes to form during Embryogenesis. In Reptiles and Birds, it arises from endoderm and mesoderm to incorporate the Egg yolk into the Digestive tract for nourishing the embryo. In placental Mammals, its nutritional function is vestigial; however, it is the source of Intestinal mucosa; Blood cells; and Germ cells. It is sometimes called the vitelline sac, which should not be confused with the Vitelline membrane of the egg.

Glial Cells

JoVE 10843

Glial cells are one of the two main types of cells in the nervous system. Glia cells comprise astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and ependymal cells in the central nervous system, and satellite and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. These cells do not communicate via electrical signals like neurons do, but they contribute to virtually every other aspect of nervous system function. In humans, the number of glial cells is roughly equal to the number of neurons in the brain. Glia in the central nervous system (CNS) include astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and ependymal cells. Astrocytes are the most abundant type of glial cell and are found in organized, non-overlapping patterns throughout the brain, where they closely associate with neurons and capillaries. Astrocytes play numerous roles in brain function, including regulating blood flow and metabolic processes, synaptic ion and pH homeostasis, and blood-brain barrier maintenance. Another specialized glial cell, the oligodendrocyte, forms the myelin sheath that surrounds neuronal axons in the CNS. Oligodendrocytes extend long cellular processes that wrap around axons multiple times to form this coating. Myelin sheath is required for proper conduction of neuronal signaling and greatly increases the speed at which these messages travel. Microglia—known as the macrop

 Core: Biology

Development of the Chick

JoVE 5155

The chicken embryo (Gallus gallus domesticus) provides an economical and accessible model for developmental biology research. Chicks develop rapidly and are amenable to genetic and physiological manipulations, allowing researchers to investigate developmental pathways down to the cell and molecular levels.


This video review of chick development begins by describing the…

 Biology II

Gastrulation

JoVE 10909

Gastrulation establishes the three primary tissues of an embryo: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. This developmental process relies on a series of intricate cellular movements, which in humans transforms a flat, “bilaminar disc” composed of two cell sheets into a three-tiered structure. In the resulting embryo, the endoderm serves as the bottom layer, and stacked directly above it is the intermediate mesoderm, and then the uppermost ectoderm. Respectively, these tissue strata will form components of the gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal and nervous systems, among other derivatives. Depending on the species, gastrulation is achieved in different ways. For example, early mouse embryos are uniquely shaped and appear as “funnels” rather than flat discs. Gastrulation thus produces a conical embryo, arranged with an inner ectoderm layer, outer endoderm, and the mesoderm sandwiched in between (similar to the layers of a sundae cone). Due to this distinct morphological feature of mice, some researchers study other models, like rabbit or chicken—both of which develop as flat structures—to gain insights into human development. One of the main morphological features of avian and mammalian gastrulation is the primitive streak, a groove that appears down the vertical center of the embryo, and through which cells migrate t

 Core: Biology

Explant Culture of Neural Tissue

JoVE 5209

The intricate structure of the vertebrate nervous system arises from a complex series of events involving cell differentiation, cell migration, and changes in cell morphology. Studying these processes is essential to our understanding of nervous system function as well as our ability to diagnose and treat disorders that result from abnormal development. However, neural…

 Neuroscience

Isolation of Murine Embryonic Hemogenic Endothelial Cells

1Departments of Medicine, Genetics and Biomedical Engineering, Yale Cardiovascular Research Center, Vascular Biology and Therapeutics Program, Yale Stem Cell Center, Yale University School of Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 3Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine

JoVE 54150

 Developmental Biology

A Novel Surgical Approach for Intratracheal Administration of Bioactive Agents in a Fetal Mouse Model

1Molecular Virology and Gene Therapy, KU Leuven, 2Department of Woman and Child, KU Leuven, 3Neurobiology and Gene Therapy, KU Leuven, 4Division of Nuclear Medicine, KU Leuven, 5Biomedical NMR Unit/ MoSAIC, KU Leuven

JoVE 4219

 Medicine

Generation of Parabiotic Zebrafish Embryos by Surgical Fusion of Developing Blastulae

1Division of Hematology/Oncology, Boston Children’s Hospital, 2Harvard Medical School, 3Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, 4Harvard Stem Cell Institute, 5Broad Institute of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 6Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 7Division of Hematologic Malignancies, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

JoVE 54168

 Developmental Biology

Generation of Scaffold-free, Three-dimensional Insulin Expressing Pancreatoids from Mouse Pancreatic Progenitors In Vitro

1Program in Developmental Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, 2Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, Texas Children's Hospital, and Houston Methodist Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 3Molecular and Cellular Biology Department, Baylor College of Medicine, 4Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Center, Baylor College of Medicine, 5McNair Medical Institute, Baylor College of Medicine

JoVE 57599

 Developmental Biology

Targeting Drugs to Larval Zebrafish Macrophages by Injecting Drug-Loaded Liposomes

1Department of Molecular Medicine and Pathology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, 2School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, 3School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland

JoVE 60198

 Immunology and Infection

Immunofluorescence Staining Using IBA1 and TMEM119 for Microglial Density, Morphology and Peripheral Myeloid Cell Infiltration Analysis in Mouse Brain

1Axe Neurosciences, Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec-Université Laval, 2Département de Médecine Moléculaire, Faculté de Médecine, Université Laval, 3Integrated Program in Neuroscience, McGill University, 4Center for Brain Immunology and Glia (BIG), University of Virginia

JoVE 60510

 Immunology and Infection

Analysis of Cell Suspensions Isolated from Solid Tissues by Spectral Flow Cytometry

1Flow Cytometry Core Facility, Center for Translational Research-Technical Core, Institut Pasteur, 2Unit for Lymphopoiesis, Immunology Department, INSERM U1223, University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Cellule Pasteur, Institut Pasteur, 3Stem-Cell Microenvironments in Repair/Regeneration Team, Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde (i3s), INEB - Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica, 4ICBAS - Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto, 5Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Team, UMRS 1166, ICAN - Institute of Cardiometabolism And Nutrition, UPMC - Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6, INSERM

JoVE 55578

 Biology

Whole-Mount In Situ Hybridization in Zebrafish Embryos and Tube Formation Assay in iPSC-ECs to Study the Role of Endoglin in Vascular Development

1Department of Physiology and Department of Cardiology of the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 2Department of Cell Biology, State Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 3Wuxi Lung Transplant Center, Wuxi People's Hospital affiliated to Nanjing Medical University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 60498

 JoVE In-Press

Primary Culture of Neurons Isolated from Embryonic Mouse Cerebellum

1Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Science, Max Rady College of Medicine, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, 2The Children's Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba (CHRIM), Max Rady College of Medicine, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, 3Department of Oral Biology, University of Illinois at Chicago, 4Department of Pathology, Max Rady College of Medicine, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba

JoVE 60168

 Neuroscience

A Layered Mounting Method for Extended Time-Lapse Confocal Microscopy of Whole Zebrafish Embryos

1Computational Biomedicine Lab, Texas Institute of Measurement Evaluation and Statistics, University of Houston, 2Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A&M Health Science Center, 3Department of Biology and Biochemistry, Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, University of Houston, 4Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Novum, Karolinska Institutet, 5Department of Intelligent Systems Engineering, Indiana University

JoVE 60321

 Developmental Biology

Dissection, Culture and Analysis of Primary Cranial Neural Crest Cells from Mouse for the Study of Neural Crest Cell Delamination and Migration

1Centre for Craniofacial and Regenerative Biology, King's College London, 2Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, FORTH, Department of Biomedical Research, University of Ioannina, 3Randall Centre of Cell & Molecular Biophysics, King's College London, 4Department of Biological Applications and Technology, University of Ioannina

JoVE 60051

 Developmental Biology

Visualization of the Superior Ocular Sulcus during Danio rerio Embryogenesis

1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, 2Women & Children's Health Research Institute, University of Alberta, 3Division of Anatomy, Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, 4Department of Cell Biology, University of Alberta, 5Department of Medical Genetics, University of Alberta, 6Neuroscience and Mental Health Research Institute, University of Alberta

JoVE 59259

 Developmental Biology
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