University of Orléans
Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University
Université de Tours
The use of plant in vitro (bio)technologies offers an attractive alternative for the production of plant-based active ingredients. Plant cells are small factories able to synthesize an exceptional variety of commercially important phytochemicals used as flavors, dyes, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals, etc. Conventional plant propagation techniques are subjected to variety of pests, environmental challenges and poor management practices that adversely affect the quality and yield of these valuable phytochemicals. Plant in vitro culture platform offers considerable advantages and advancements over conventional phytochemical production techniques. However, during culture development, the yield of metabolites is generally low due to poor understanding of various factors that affect the biosynthetic pathway. Therefore, various strategies have been developed and reported to enhance biosynthesis of these phytochemicals in plant cell cultures. The recent emergence of omics technologies, molecular biology, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology has revolutionized diverse fields in life sciences. These modern aspects of life sciences have considerably influencing plant in vitro technology and phytochemical production. An application of these technologies is expanding horizons for an understanding of metabolic pathways involved in the biosynthesis of valuable biologically active ingredients and their cost-efficient production.