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The vertebrate retina is a complex, laminated sensory organ. It consists of multiple neuronal cell types and subtypes which synapse on each other to detect visual informa…
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The sense of taste is essential to preserve a healthy body and mind. While taste contributes to the selection of beneficial compounds over noxious compounds to ensure pro…
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Neurons are the primary cells of the nervous system and are responsible for the distinctive roles of the brain. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate their different…
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Neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and frontotemporal d…
Axons are the main line of information transmission among neurons. Accordingly, axonal pathology represents a common pathogenic feature associated with loss of neuronal c…
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Global health metrics implicate neurological disorders as the leading cause of disability and the second leading cause of death. Neurodegenerative disorders comprise a ma…
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Spatial cognition is the ability to produce, hold, retrieve, and transform well-structured visual images. It has been associated with academic achievement in science, tec…
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The choroid plexus (CP) is a highly vascularised ‘frondlike’ structure lining the four ventricles in the brain. Beyond playing a central role in cerebrospinal…
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Excessive reward-based behaviors produce some of the greatest health-related challenges the world faces today. Addictions (from substance use to gambling) and weight-rela…
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A central question in auditory research is how we perceive and produce human speech and language. Understanding these mechanisms is critical to improving the diagnosis an…
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Substance use disorders (SUDs) are acquired behavioral states that develop through repeated drug usage and drug withdrawal. Despite having substantial pathological featur…
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The mitochondrion is a key organelle, functioning as a biosynthetic, bioenergetic, and signaling hub in the eukaryotic cell. This organelle must coordinate many crucial c…
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Neuroimmunology is the field of the complex interplay between neurology and immunology. It encompasses diseases with broad spectrum manifestations which are often difficu…
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Axons grow through complex and heterogeneous cellular environments, using a diverse array of molecular cues to guide them towards their targets. Successful axon growth an…
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Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Multiple Sclerosis, Meningitis, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington…
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Fungal infections in humans have been trouble for health because they are responsible for about 1.5 million deaths yearly. Aspergillus, Candida, Cry…
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Striated muscle contraction is intricately regulated within the sarcomere, with various modulatory processes able to further adjust function. While substantial progress h…
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The developmental aspects of seizure occurrence and epilepsy are key to the design of an effective therapeutic approach. In fact, the clinical etiology of seizures is var…
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Neurons are very fragile cells inside human brains or spinal cord or peripheral organs, and their survival is easy to be negatively impacted by various types of insults i…
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Early development of the neural tube, the spinal cord, and the brain is one of the most prominent subjects of intensive research in Developmental Biology. Combined with t…
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In the classical literature, plasticity is limited to the developing brain during a specific time window when the brain circuit is most sensitive to changes from external…
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Mass adoption of human-centered robotics, such as occupational exoskeletons, collaborative robots, exosuits, and motorized prosthetics, is lacking in society. Improving h…
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Alcohol use is the most prominent form of drug use in the world. Individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) present symptoms such as loss of control, compulsivity, and a…
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Proper neuronal development and plasticity are essential for the correct formation of structures in the central nervous system, their connections, and maintenance. These …
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Calcium is a critical neuronal signal that is tightly coupled with neuronal activities. As a proxy of action potential-induced voltage changes of neuronal membrane, spike…
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Extensive research during the past several years has demonstrated the feasibility of the brain-machine interface (BCI) in practical use, while it is still important to re…
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Ischemia-reperfusion injury caused by cardiac arrest, stroke, and middle cerebral artery occlusion is a major challenge in survival and neuroprotection. There are multipl…
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Every cell in an organism carries the exact same genome. The genome is partly active, and its products vary in different cells via transcription and other downstream proc…
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Neuron survival is critical for the normal function and healthy aging of almost any animal, while numerous factors can contribute to neuronal demise. Understanding how th…
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Cell cytoskeleton is composed of interlinking structural biomolecules like microfilaments (made of actin monomers), intermediate filaments (examples include but are not l…
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Stress occurs in response to a real or perceived threat to homeostasis. The stress response is an important physiological function, necessary for an organism’s surv…
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Deep brain stimulation (DBS) for movement disorders has traditionally been done with a monopolar review and a time and labor-intensive process in which every availab…
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