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Стехиометрия реакции
A balanced chemical equation provides a great deal of information in a very succinct format. Chemical formulas provide the identities of the…
Ограничивающий реагент
The relative amounts of reactants and products represented in a balanced chemical equation are often referred to as stoichiometric amounts. However,…
Выход реакции
The theoretical yield of a reaction is the amount of product estimated to form based on the stoichiometry of the balanced chemical equation. The…
Общие свойства растворов
Many common substances around us exist as a solution, such as ocean water, air, and gasoline. All solutions are mixtures of substances that are…
Концентрация и разбавление растворов
The relative amount of a given solution component is known as its concentration. Often, though not always, a solution contains one component with a…
Растворы электролитов и неэлектролитов
Substances that undergo either a physical or a chemical change in solution to yield ions that can conduct electricity are called electrolytes. If a…
Растворимость ионных соединений
Solubility is the measure of the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent at a given temperature and pressure.…
Химические реакции в водных растворах
Chemical substances interact in many different ways. Certain chemical reactions exhibit common patterns of reactivity. Due to the vast number of…
Реакции осаждения
In a precipitation reaction, aqueous solutions of soluble salts react to give an insoluble ionic compound – the precipitate. The reaction…
Реакции окисления-восстановления.
Earth’s atmosphere contains about 20% molecular oxygen, O2, a chemically reactive gas that plays an essential role in the metabolism of…
Числа окисления
In redox reactions, the transfer of electrons occurs between reacting species. Electron transfer is described by a hypothetical number called the…
Кислоты, основания и реакции нейтрализации
An acid-base reaction is one in which a hydrogen ion, H+, is transferred from one chemical species to another. Such reactions are of central…
Реакции синтеза и разложения.
Synthesis and decomposition are two types of redox reactions. Synthesis means to make something, whereas decomposition means to break something. The…
Извлечение лигнина с высоким содержанием β-O-4 мягкая этанола добычи и его влияние на урожайность деполимеризации
Lignin valorization strategies are a key factor for achieving more economically competitive biorefineries based on lignocellulosic biomass. Most of…
Производство простых и недорогих датчиков поверхности почвы и гравиметрических датчиков содержания воды
Quantifying temperature and moisture at the soil surface is essential for understanding how soil surface biota respond to changes in the environment.…

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