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Capítulo 4
Estequiometria de Reações
A balanced chemical equation provides a great deal of information in a very succinct format. Chemical formulas provide the identities of the…
Reagente Limitante
The relative amounts of reactants and products represented in a balanced chemical equation are often referred to as stoichiometric amounts. However,…
Rendimento das Reações
The theoretical yield of a reaction is the amount of product estimated to form based on the stoichiometry of the balanced chemical equation. The…
Propriedades Gerais das Soluções
Many common substances around us exist as a solution, such as ocean water, air, and gasoline. All solutions are mixtures of substances that are…
Concentração e Diluição de Soluções
The relative amount of a given solution component is known as its concentration. Often, though not always, a solution contains one component with a…
Soluções Eletrolíticas e Não Eletrolíticas
Substances that undergo either a physical or a chemical change in solution to yield ions that can conduct electricity are called electrolytes. If a…
Solubilidade de Compostos Iónicos
Solubility is the measure of the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent at a given temperature and pressure.…
Reações Químicas em Soluções Aquosas
Chemical substances interact in many different ways. Certain chemical reactions exhibit common patterns of reactivity. Due to the vast number of…
Reações de Precipitação
In a precipitation reaction, aqueous solutions of soluble salts react to give an insoluble ionic compound – the precipitate. The reaction…
Reações de Oxidação-Redução
Earth’s atmosphere contains about 20% molecular oxygen, O2, a chemically reactive gas that plays an essential role in the metabolism of…
Números de Oxidação
In redox reactions, the transfer of electrons occurs between reacting species. Electron transfer is described by a hypothetical number called the…
Reações de Ácidos, Bases e de Neutralização
An acid-base reaction is one in which a hydrogen ion, H+, is transferred from one chemical species to another. Such reactions are of central…
Reações de Síntese e Decomposição
Synthesis and decomposition are two types of redox reactions. Synthesis means to make something, whereas decomposition means to break something. The…
Extração da lignina com alto teor de β-O-4 por extração de etanol suave e seu efeito sobre o rendimento de despolimerização
Lignin valorization strategies are a key factor for achieving more economically competitive biorefineries based on lignocellulosic biomass. Most of…
Fabricação de sensores de temperatura de superfície do solo simples e baratos e sensores de conteúdo de água gravimétrica
Quantifying temperature and moisture at the soil surface is essential for understanding how soil surface biota respond to changes in the environment.…
Procedimento experimental para estudos de laboratório de <em>In Situ</em> ardente: inflamabilidade e eficiência de queima de petróleo bruto
A new method for the simultaneous study of the flammability and burning efficiency of fresh and weathered crude oil through two experimental…

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