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الفصل 7
طبيعة الضوء الموجية
The nature of light has been a subject of inquiry since antiquity. In the seventeenth century, Isaac Newton performed experiments with lenses and…
الطيف الكهرومغناطيسي
The electromagnetic spectrum consists of all the types of electromagnetic radiation arranged according to their frequency and wavelength. Each of the…
التداخل والانكسار
Interference is a characteristic phenomenon exhibited by waves. When two electromagnetic waves interact with their peaks and troughs coinciding, a…
التأثير الكهرضوئي
When light of a particular wavelength strikes a metal surface, electrons are emitted. This is called the photoelectric effect. The minimum frequency…
نموذج بور Bohr
Following the work of Ernest Rutherford and his colleagues in the early twentieth century, the picture of atoms consisting of tiny dense nuclei…
طيف الانبعاث الذرّي
When solids, liquids, or condensed gases are heated sufficiently, they radiate some of the excess energy as light. Photons produced in this manner…
الطول الموجي دي برولي
In the macroscopic world, objects that are large enough to be seen by the naked eye follow the rules of classical physics. A billiard ball moving on…
مبدأ عدم اليقين
Werner Heisenberg considered the limits of how accurately one can measure properties of an electron or other microscopic particles. He determined…
النموذج الميكانيكي الكمّي للذرّة
Shortly after de Broglie published his ideas that the electron in a hydrogen atom could be better thought of as being a circular standing wave…
أعداد الكمّ
It is said that the energy of an electron in an atom is quantized; that is, it can be equal only to certain specific values and can jump from one…
المدارات الذرّية
An atomic orbital represents the three-dimensional regions in an atom where an electron has the highest probability to reside. The radial…
مبدأ استبعاد باولي
The arrangement of electrons in the orbitals of an atom is called its electron configuration. We describe an electron configuration with a symbol…
طاقات المدارات الذرّية
In an atom, the negatively charged electrons are attracted to the positively charged nucleus. In a multielectron atom, electron-electron repulsions…
مبدأ أوفباو وقاعدة هوند
To determine the electron configuration for any particular atom, we can build the structures in the order of atomic numbers. Beginning with hydrogen,…
التوزيع الالتكروني للذرّات متعدّدة الالكترونات
The alkali metal sodium (atomic number 11) has one more electron than the neon atom. This electron must go into the lowest-energy subshell available,…
تميز الانبعاثات ليزر الأشعة تحت الحمراء البعيدة وقياس تردداتها
The generation and subsequent measurement of far-infrared radiation has found numerous applications in high-resolution spectroscopy, radio astronomy,…
السنكروتروني ميكروديفراكتيون الأشعة السينية والتصوير Fluorescence المعدنية وعينات من الصخور
In this report, we describe a detailed procedure for acquiring and processing x-ray microfluorescence (μXRF), and Laue and powder…
تقنية قياس درجات الحرارة القريبة من الأشعة تحت الحمراء للمياه المحيطة مجال مغناطيسي صغيرة ساخنة التعريفي
A technique to measure the temperature of water and non-turbid aqueous media surrounding an induction-heated small magnetic sphere is presented. This…

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