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Işığın Dalga Doğası
The nature of light has been a subject of inquiry since antiquity. In the seventeenth century, Isaac Newton performed experiments with lenses and…
Elektromanyetik Spektrum
The electromagnetic spectrum consists of all the types of electromagnetic radiation arranged according to their frequency and wavelength. Each of the…
Girişim ve Kırınım
Interference is a characteristic phenomenon exhibited by waves. When two electromagnetic waves interact with their peaks and troughs coinciding, a…
Fotoelektrik Olay
When light of a particular wavelength strikes a metal surface, electrons are emitted. This is called the photoelectric effect. The minimum frequency…
Bohr Modeli
Following the work of Ernest Rutherford and his colleagues in the early twentieth century, the picture of atoms consisting of tiny dense nuclei…
Emisyon Spektrumu
When solids, liquids, or condensed gases are heated sufficiently, they radiate some of the excess energy as light. Photons produced in this manner…
De Broglie Dalga Boyu
In the macroscopic world, objects that are large enough to be seen by the naked eye follow the rules of classical physics. A billiard ball moving on…
Belirsizlik İlkesi
Werner Heisenberg considered the limits of how accurately one can measure properties of an electron or other microscopic particles. He determined…
Atomun Kuantum-Mekanik Modeli
Shortly after de Broglie published his ideas that the electron in a hydrogen atom could be better thought of as being a circular standing wave…
Kuantum Sayıları
It is said that the energy of an electron in an atom is quantized; that is, it can be equal only to certain specific values and can jump from one…
Atomik Orbitaller
An atomic orbital represents the three-dimensional regions in an atom where an electron has the highest probability to reside. The radial…
Pauli Dışarlama İlkesi
The arrangement of electrons in the orbitals of an atom is called its electron configuration. We describe an electron configuration with a symbol…
Atomik Orbitallerin Enerjileri
In an atom, the negatively charged electrons are attracted to the positively charged nucleus. In a multielectron atom, electron-electron repulsions…
Aufbau İlkesi ve Hund Kuralı
To determine the electron configuration for any particular atom, we can build the structures in the order of atomic numbers. Beginning with hydrogen,…
Çok Elektronlu Atomlarının Elektron Konfigürasyonu
The alkali metal sodium (atomic number 11) has one more electron than the neon atom. This electron must go into the lowest-energy subshell available,…
Uzak-kızılötesi lazer Emisyonları ve Bunların Frekansları ölçülmesi Karakterizasyonu
The generation and subsequent measurement of far-infrared radiation has found numerous applications in high-resolution spectroscopy, radio astronomy,…
Sinkrotron x-ışını Microdiffraction ve Mineral ve kaya örneklerini floresans görüntüleme
In this report, we describe a detailed procedure for acquiring and processing x-ray microfluorescence (μXRF), and Laue and powder…
Yakın kızılötesi sıcaklık ölçüm tekniği bir indüksiyon ısıtmalı manyetik küre küçük çevreleyen su için
A technique to measure the temperature of water and non-turbid aqueous media surrounding an induction-heated small magnetic sphere is presented. This…

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