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الفصل 9
أنواع الروابط الكيميائية
Chemical bonding theories were pioneered by American chemist Gilbert N. Lewis. He developed a model called the Lewis model to explain the type…
رموز لويس وقاعدة الثمانية
Chemical bonds are complex interactions between two or more atoms or ions, which reduce the potential energy of the molecule. Gilbert N. Lewis…
الترابط الأيوني ونقل الالكترون
Ions are atoms or molecules bearing an electrical charge. A cation (a positive ion) forms when a neutral atom loses one or more electrons from its…
دورة بورن-هابر
An ionic compound is stable because of the electrostatic attraction between its positive and negative ions. The lattice energy of a compound is a…
الاتجاهات في الطاقة الشبكية- حجم الأيون وشحنته
An ionic compound is stable because of the electrostatic attraction between its positive and negative ions. The lattice energy of a compound is a…
الترابط التساهمي وهياكل لويس
Compared to ionic bonds, which results from the transfer of electrons between metallic and nonmetallic atoms, covalent bonds result from the mutual…
الكهرسلبيّة
Whether a bond is nonpolar or polar covalent is determined by a property of the bonding atoms called electronegativity.  Electronegativity…
قطبية الروابط، العزم ثنائي القطب، والنسبة الأيونية
The absolute value of the difference in electronegativity (ΔEN) of two bonded atoms provides a rough measure of the polarity to be expected…
تركيبات لويس للمركبات الجزيئية والأيونات متعددة الذرات
To draw Lewis structures for complicated molecules and molecular ions, it is helpful to follow a step-by-step procedure as outlined: Determine the…
الرنين
The Lewis structure of a nitrite anion (NO2−) may actually be drawn in two different ways, distinguished by the locations of the N-O and N=O…
الشحنات الرسمية
In some cases, there are seemingly more than one valid Lewis structures for molecules and polyatomic ions. The concept of formal charges can be used…
استثناءات من قاعدة الثمانية
Many covalent molecules have central atoms that do not have eight electrons in their Lewis structures. These molecules fall into three…
طاقات الروابط وأطوال الروابط
Stable molecules exist because covalent bonds hold the atoms together. The strength of a covalent bond is measured by the energy required to break…
الترابط في المعادن
Metallic bonds are formed between two metal atoms. A simplified model to describe metallic bonding has been developed by Paul Drüde called the…
قياس كوهيرينسيس الذبذبات فائق السرعة في Polyatomic الكاتيونات جذرية مع قوي-حقل ثابت التأين
We present a pump-probe method for preparing vibrational coherences in polyatomic radical cations and probing their ultrafast dynamics. By shifting…
إعداد Nanosheets الكربون في درجة حرارة الغرفة
Amphiphilic molecules equipped with a reactive, carbon-rich "oligoyne" segment consisting of conjugated carbon-carbon triple bonds self-assemble into…

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