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Глава 9
Типы химических связей
Chemical bonding theories were pioneered by American chemist Gilbert N. Lewis. He developed a model called the Lewis model to explain the type…
Символы Льюиса и правило октетов
Chemical bonds are complex interactions between two or more atoms or ions, which reduce the potential energy of the molecule. Gilbert N. Lewis…
Ионная связь и перенос электронов
Ions are atoms or molecules bearing an electrical charge. A cation (a positive ion) forms when a neutral atom loses one or more electrons from its…
Цикл Борна-Габера
An ionic compound is stable because of the electrostatic attraction between its positive and negative ions. The lattice energy of a compound is a…
Тенденции изменения энергии решетки: размер и заряд ионов
An ionic compound is stable because of the electrostatic attraction between its positive and negative ions. The lattice energy of a compound is a…
Ковалентное связывание и структуры Льюиса
Compared to ionic bonds, which results from the transfer of electrons between metallic and nonmetallic atoms, covalent bonds result from the mutual…
Электроотрицательность
Whether a bond is nonpolar or polar covalent is determined by a property of the bonding atoms called electronegativity.  Electronegativity…
Полярность связи, дипольный момент и процентный ионный характер
The absolute value of the difference in electronegativity (ΔEN) of two bonded atoms provides a rough measure of the polarity to be expected…
Льюисовские структуры молекулярных соединений и многоатомных ионов
To draw Lewis structures for complicated molecules and molecular ions, it is helpful to follow a step-by-step procedure as outlined: Determine the…
Резонанс
The Lewis structure of a nitrite anion (NO2−) may actually be drawn in two different ways, distinguished by the locations of the N-O and N=O…
Формальный заряд
In some cases, there are seemingly more than one valid Lewis structures for molecules and polyatomic ions. The concept of formal charges can be used…
Исключения из правила октетов
Many covalent molecules have central atoms that do not have eight electrons in their Lewis structures. These molecules fall into three…
Энергия связи и длина связи
Stable molecules exist because covalent bonds hold the atoms together. The strength of a covalent bond is measured by the energy required to break…
Соединения металлов
Metallic bonds are formed between two metal atoms. A simplified model to describe metallic bonding has been developed by Paul Drüde called the…

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