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الفصل 11
مقارنة جزيئية بين الغازات والسوائل والمواد الصلبة
Particles in a solid are tightly packed together (fixed shape) and often arranged in a regular pattern; in a liquid, they are close together with no…
القوى بين الجزيئية مقابل القوى الجزيئية
Intermolecular forces (IMF) are electrostatic attractions arising from charge-charge interactions between molecules. The strength of the…
القوى بين الجزيئات
Atoms and molecules interact through bonds (or forces): intramolecular and intermolecular. The forces are electrostatic as they arise from…
مقارنة القوى بين الجزيئيات
Intermolecular forces are attractive forces that exist between molecules. They dictate several bulk properties, such as melting points, boiling…
التوتر السطحي والعمل الشعري واللزوجة
Surface Tension The various IMFs between identical molecules of a substance are examples of cohesive forces. The molecules within a liquid are…
انتقالات المرحلة
Whether solid, liquid, or gas, a substance's state depends on the order and arrangement of its particles (atoms, molecules, or ions). Particles…
انتقالات المرحلة: التبخير والتكثيف
The physical form of a substance changes on changing its temperature. For example, raising the temperature of a liquid causes the liquid to vaporize…
ضغط البخار
When a liquid vaporizes in a closed container, gas molecules cannot escape. As these gas phase molecules move randomly about, they will occasionally…
معادلة كلاوزيوس-كلايبرون
The equilibrium between a liquid and its vapor depends on the temperature of the system; a rise in temperature causes a corresponding rise in the…
انتقالات المرحلة: الذوبان والتجميد
Heating a crystalline solid increases the average energy of its atoms, molecules, or ions, and the solid gets hotter. At some point, the added energy…
انتقالات المرحلة: التصاعد والترسب
Some solids can transition directly into the gaseous state, bypassing the liquid state, via a process known as sublimation. At room temperature and…
منحنيات التسخين والتبريد
When a substance—isolated from its environment—is subjected to heat changes, corresponding changes in temperature and phase of the…
مخطّطات المرحلة
A phase diagram combines plots of pressure versus temperature for the liquid-gas, solid-liquid, and solid-gas phase-transition equilibria of a…
تراكيب المواد الصلبة
Solids in which the atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in a definite repeating pattern are known as crystalline solids. Metals and ionic…
رقم التوسيط والتنسيق الشبكي
The structure of a crystalline solid, whether a metal or not, is best described by considering its simplest repeating unit, which is referred to as…
المواد الصلبة الجزيئية والأيونية
Crystalline solids are divided into four types: molecular, ionic, metallic, and covalent network based on the type of constituent units and their…
الهياكل البلورية الأيونية
Ionic crystals consist of two or more different kinds of ions that usually have different sizes. The packing of these ions into a crystal structure…
المواد الصلبة المعدنية
Metallic solids such as crystals of copper, aluminum, and iron are formed by metal atoms. The structure of metallic crystals is often described as a…
نظرية النطاق
When two or more atoms come together to form a molecule, their atomic orbitals combine and molecular orbitals of distinct energies result. In a…
شبكة المواد الصلبة التساهمية
Network covalent solids contain a three-dimensional network of covalently bonded atoms as found in the crystal structures of nonmetals like diamond,…
علم البلورات بالأشعة السينية
The size of the unit cell and the arrangement of atoms in a crystal may be determined from measurements of the diffraction of X-rays by the crystal,…
A طريقة لمعالجة التوتر السطحي من المعدن السائل عن طريق الأكسدة السطحية والحد من
Controlling interfacial tension is an effective method for manipulating the shape, position, and flow of fluids at sub-millimeter length scales,…
وصف جليكوبروتينس مع حظيرة الغلوبولين المناعي علم البلورات بالأشعة السينية والتقنيات الفيزيائية الحيوية
Glycoproteins on the surface of cells play critical roles in cellular function, including signalling, adhesion and transport. On leukocytes, several…
اختﻻق قطرات اللزوجة عالية باستخدام "جهاز الشعرية موائع جزيئية" مع "هيكل تدفق" المشارك عكس المرحلة
The generation of monodisperse droplets with high viscosity has always been a challenge in droplet microfluidics. Here, we demonstrate a…

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