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Chapitre 11
Composition moléculaire des gaz, liquides et solides
Particles in a solid are tightly packed together (fixed shape) and often arranged in a regular pattern; in a liquid, they are close together with no…
Forces intermoléculaires vs intramoléculaires
Intermolecular forces (IMF) are electrostatic attractions arising from charge-charge interactions between molecules. The strength of the…
Forces intermoléculaires
Atoms and molecules interact through bonds (or forces): intramolecular and intermolecular. The forces are electrostatic as they arise from…
Comparaison des forces intermoléculaires : point de fusion, point d'ébullition et miscibilité
Intermolecular forces are attractive forces that exist between molecules. They dictate several bulk properties, such as melting points, boiling…
Tension superficielle, action capillaire et viscosité
Surface Tension The various IMFs between identical molecules of a substance are examples of cohesive forces. The molecules within a liquid are…
Transitions de phase
Whether solid, liquid, or gas, a substance's state depends on the order and arrangement of its particles (atoms, molecules, or ions). Particles…
Transitions de phase : vaporisation et condensation
The physical form of a substance changes on changing its temperature. For example, raising the temperature of a liquid causes the liquid to vaporize…
Pression de vapeur
When a liquid vaporizes in a closed container, gas molecules cannot escape. As these gas phase molecules move randomly about, they will occasionally…
Équation de Clausius-Clapeyron
The equilibrium between a liquid and its vapor depends on the temperature of the system; a rise in temperature causes a corresponding rise in the…
Transitions de phases : fusion et congélation
Heating a crystalline solid increases the average energy of its atoms, molecules, or ions, and the solid gets hotter. At some point, the added energy…
Transitions de phases : sublimation et dépôt
Some solids can transition directly into the gaseous state, bypassing the liquid state, via a process known as sublimation. At room temperature and…
Courbes d'échauffement et refroidissement
When a substance—isolated from its environment—is subjected to heat changes, corresponding changes in temperature and phase of the…
Diagrammes de phases
A phase diagram combines plots of pressure versus temperature for the liquid-gas, solid-liquid, and solid-gas phase-transition equilibria of a…
Structures des solides
Solids in which the atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in a definite repeating pattern are known as crystalline solids. Metals and ionic…
Réseau centré et nombre de coordination
The structure of a crystalline solid, whether a metal or not, is best described by considering its simplest repeating unit, which is referred to as…
Solides moléculaires et ioniques
Crystalline solids are divided into four types: molecular, ionic, metallic, and covalent network based on the type of constituent units and their…
Structures de cristaux ioniques
Ionic crystals consist of two or more different kinds of ions that usually have different sizes. The packing of these ions into a crystal structure…
Solides métalliques
Metallic solids such as crystals of copper, aluminum, and iron are formed by metal atoms. The structure of metallic crystals is often described as a…
Théorie des bandes
When two or more atoms come together to form a molecule, their atomic orbitals combine and molecular orbitals of distinct energies result. In a…
Solides de réseau covalent
Network covalent solids contain a three-dimensional network of covalently bonded atoms as found in the crystal structures of nonmetals like diamond,…
Cristallographie aux rayons-X
The size of the unit cell and the arrangement of atoms in a crystal may be determined from measurements of the diffraction of X-rays by the crystal,…
A Method to Manipulate Surface Tension of a Liquid Metal via Surface Oxidation and Reduction
Controlling interfacial tension is an effective method for manipulating the shape, position, and flow of fluids at sub-millimeter length scales,…
Characterization of Glycoproteins with the Immunoglobulin Fold by X-Ray Crystallography and Biophysical Techniques
Glycoproteins on the surface of cells play critical roles in cellular function, including signalling, adhesion and transport. On leukocytes, several…
Fabricating High-viscosity Droplets using Microfluidic Capillary Device with Phase-inversion Co-flow Structure
The generation of monodisperse droplets with high viscosity has always been a challenge in droplet microfluidics. Here, we demonstrate a…

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